Untested Recipes

INTRODUCTION

Guilhermina Maria de Figueiredo dos Remédios ("Guilly") was a superb cook from Shanghai who assembled many Macanese recipes – her own as well as those of her friends. J. Bosco Correa had them typed up and distributed to his friends.
Among my late mother's recipes I encountered a collection labelled "Annie Sousa's recipes – about 80 of them". It is not clear who Annie Sousa was nor who had typed up and passed the collection to my mother. Many of those recipes duplicated some in Guilly's collection; others were attributed to "Mae" (which probably should have been Mãe – mother – perhaps referring to Annie Sousa's mother?).
Some recipes from these two collections are reproduced here. Many if not most of them would be at least 100 years old, and of course use ingredients and techniques of their era. Today many of the ingredients are difficult or impossible to obtain and substitutes would have to be found. Some recipes are incomplete. To add to the difficulty, quantities of ingredients are often ill-defined, sometimes specified only as "ginger the size of 20 cents", or 1 cent's worth of spring onions – we do not even know in what currency, in what era, nor their purchasing power!
Nevertheless, the Guilly and Annie Sousa recipes are reproduced here, both for historical interest and so that Macanese can use them as a basis for experimentation.
Nowadays we enjoy many modern facilities – microwave ovens and blenders, for example – and could simplify many of the processes, so there is ample scope for adaptation of these recipes.
Guilly's collection includes many popular and some less familiar dishes, but surprisingly omits that staple of Macanese tables, minchi. A few of the recipes are not for the squeamish: if you are brave enough, you can learn how to convert pig's intestines into the casing of sausages, or how to cook a sheep's head! Others would be recognised as distinctly unhealthy: for example, many people would prefer to use polyunsaturated oil instead of the lard that features in almost every recipe. Delicious though it is, toresmo could not be recommended to people suffering from high cholesterol.
I have edited the recipes – hopefully without changing any of the original intent – to improve the presentation and use consistent terminology and units of measurement. Explanatory notes have been added, especially where the original recipe was unclear. J. Bosco Correa provided invaluable help and clarification.
Authors of the recipes are identified wherever possible but unfortunately Guilly only referred to many of them by their first names. In Guilly's collection I have assumed that she is the author where there is none identified.
It has to be stressed that these recipes are untried. It is my hope that, over time, people will experiment, use ingredients readily available today, clarify ambiguities, identify authors and fill in the gaps. If you can improve on these recipes, please send amendments to h.dassumpcao@macanesefamilies.com – HdA

Here we present some 160 recipes assembled by Guilly, Annie Sousa and Maria Celestina de Mello e Senna. They are untested and many are incomplete, but are presented for historical interest and to provide a basis for experimentation.

CARNES / MEATS

Carne de porco / Pork

amargoso lorcha (bitter melon stuffed with pork)
amonica (pork balls)
caldo de mão de porco (trotter soup)
capela (meat loaf) v2, v3
chili chau chau (stir-fried pork with chillies)
chi yôk chôk (pork congee)
chouriço:
congee:
pork (chi yôk chôk)
pork rib (canje de ossos de porco)
cria cria v1, v2
croquettes (rolete)
iscas (fried pig's liver with bacon)
mão de porco azedo (sour pig's trotters)
meat loaf (capela) v2, v3
pai quat (pork spare ribs)
papa de porco salmourado (rice porridge with pickled pork)
pickled pork with turmeric (porco salmourado)
pig's trotter:
soup (caldo de mão de porco)
sour (mão de porco azedo)
porco:
balichão tamarinho (pork with balichão and tamarind) v2
bamboo (skewered pork)
cucuz (steamed pork)
salmourado (pickled pork with turmeric)
vinho d'alho v1, v2
pork:
balls (amonica)
crackling with balichão v1, v2 (toresmo)
balichão and tamarind (porco balichão tamarinho)
jugged (serrabulho)
kidneys, stir-fried (rims chau chau)
rib soup (caldo de costela de porco)
skewered (porco bamboo)
steamed (porco cucuz)
sweet cucumber pickle (porco mela miçó)
rims chau chau (stir-fried pork kidneys)
rolete (croquettes)
serrabulho (jugged pork)
toresmo v1, v2 (pork crackling with balichão)

Aves / Fowl

ade:
ade cabidela (jugged duck) v1, v2
ade pasap (duck with ginger)
ade santa clara (duck with mushrooms and tomatoes)
capão a moda de môlho de perdiz (capon with liver gravy)
chicken:
asparagus (paper bag chicken)
bamboo shoots (kai pin) v1, v2
cheese and olives (galinha ensopada)
curry (caril de galinha)
curry, sweet (caril doce)
fried (galinha grelhada) v1, v2
liver and gizzard (chicken thereze)
liver and gizzards (galinha môlho)
liver sauce (galinha de teresa)
liver sauce (galinha môlho de perdiz)
white sauce (galinha môlho branco)
jugged (galinha cabidela)
pie filling (galinha têmpra de pastel)
soy sauce (galinha excelente)
stir-fried (galinha chau chau)
thereze (with liver and gizzard)
duck:
galinha:
cabidela (jugged chicken)
chau chau (stir-fried chicken)
ensopada (chicken with cheese and olives)
excelente (excellent soy chicken)
grelhada v1, v2 (fried chicken)
môlho (chicken with liver and gizzards)
môlho branco (chicken in white sauce)
môlho de perdiz (chicken in liver sauce)
de teresa (chicken in liver sauce)
galinha têmpra de pastel (chicken pie filling)
kai pin v1, v2 (chicken with bamboo shoots)
paper bag chicken (chicken with asparagus)
pigeon:
tamalha (chicken in banana leaves)

Carne de Vaca / Beef

amargoso (bitter melon)
beef:
Brazilian style(vaca brasileira)
bitter melon (amargoso)
corned (vaca salmourada)
crumbed (bife pó de bolacha)
Macau style (bife Macau) v2
stir-fried (vaca chau chau parida)
wine and garlic (vaca embriagada)
bife:
Macau (beef Macau style) v2
pó de bolacha (crumbed beef)
calf:
foot jelly geléia de pé de vaca()
geléia de pé de vaca (calf foot jelly)
meat loaf:
papa de vaca (rice porridge with beef)
pot-roast beef (vaca estufada)
vaca:
brasileira(beef Brazilian style)
embriagada (beef with wine and garlic)
estufada v4 (pot-roast beef)
chau chau parida (stir-fried beef)
salmourada (corned beef)
seca (meat loaf)

Carnes mistas / Mixed meats

arroz cachôro (rice with mixed meats)
caldeirada v1 (stew with mixed meats)
chau chau de pele (stew with puffed pork skin) v3
cozido (hotpot – stew with mixed meats) v3
diabo (rich, spicy stew) v5, v6
furuso (left-overs)
game pie:
game pie v1, v2
hotpot (cozido)
left-overs (furuso)
rice with mixed meats (arroz cachôro)
stew:
mixed meats (caldeirada)
mixed meats (cozido)
mixed meats (diabo) v5, v6
mixed meats and puffed pork skin (chau chau de pele, or tacho)
tacho (stew with mixed meats and puffed pork skin) v3

sausages

chouriço:
de sutate (soy sauce sausage)
vinho d'alho (sausage with wine and garlic)
soy sauce sausage (chouriço de sutate)
sausage with wine and garlic (chouriço vinho d'alho)

PEIXE, MARISCO / FISH, SEAFOOD

caldeirada v2 (fish stew)
chouriço:
carangeijo chaochao (stir-fried crabs)
carangeijo de delmira (crabs with sour plums)
chawan no mushi (fish with mushrooms and bamboo shoots)
choco chaochao (stir-fried squid)
chutney de peixe cabuz (fish chutney)
crabs, boiled (carangeijo bafado)
crab:
stir-fried (carangeijo chaochao)
sour plums (carangeijo de delmira)
escabeche (fish chutney)
esmargal v1, v2
fish:
stew (caldeirada)
fish:
squid, stir-fried (choco chaochao)

SOPA / SOUP

caldo:
de costela de porco (pork rib soup)
de mão de porco (pig's trotter soup)
verde (green vegetable soup)
canje:
de frango (chicken congee)
de ossos de porco (pork rib congee)
chawan no mushi (fish soup with mushrooms and bamboo shoots)
chi yôk chôk (pork congee)
congee:
chicken (canje de frango)
pork (chi yôk chôk)
pork rib (canje de ossos de porco)
fish soup:
gnee ko soup (sopa de gnee ko)
green vegetable soup (caldo verde)
papa:
de porco salmourado (rice porridge with pickled pork)
de vaca (rice porridge with beef)
pig's trotter soup (caldo de mão de porco)
pork rib soup (caldo de costela de porco)
Portuguese soup (sopa Portuguêsa)
rice porridge:
beef papa de vaca()
pickled pork (papa de porco salmourado)
sheep's head soup (sopa de cabeca de carneiro)
sopa assado (soup from left-overs of cozido)
sopa:
de cabeca de carneiro (sheep's head soup)
de gnee ko (gnee ko soup)
deliciosa (soup with egg dumplings)
de peixe (fish soup)
Portuguêsa (Portuguese soup)
de vantan (wonton soup)
soup with egg dumplings (sopa deliciosa )
trotter soup (caldo de mão de porco)
wonton soup (sopa de vantan)

LEGUMES / VEGETABLES

bebinga:
de inhame (taro pudding)
de rabono (daikon "Chinese white radish" pudding)
bredo raba raba (mixed vegetables)
daikon "Chinese white radish":
pickled (rabano antone
pudding (bebinga de rabono)
inhame frito (fried taro)
lap choi (pickled vegetables)
rabano antone (pickled daikon "Chinese white radish")
stuffed":
taro":
fried (inhame frito)
pudding (bebinga de inhame)
mixed vegetables (bredo raba raba)

RICE

arroz:
arroz cachôro (rice with mixed meats)
arroz carregado (pressed rice)
arroz chaochao (fried rice)
arroz de choco (rice with squid)
de tomate v1, v2
chi yôk chôk (pork congee)
congee:
chicken (canje de frango)
pork (chi yôk chôk)
pork rib (canje de ossos de porco)
arroz milanese (rice with chicken and mushrooms)
lapa (glutinous rice in banana leaves)
papa:
de porco salmourado (rice porridge with pickled pork)
de vaca (rice porridge with beef)
rice:
fried (arroz chaochao)
rice porridge with pickled pork (papa de porco salmourado)
pressed (arroz carregado)
rice with mixed meats (arroz cachôro)
rice with squid (arroz de choco )
tomatoes and chicken (arroz de tomate) v1, v2

BREAD,
PASTRY,
STUFFING

apa bico (savoury pastry) v2
bread rolls, stuffed (pão recheado)
cheese:
chilicote:
de rabono (savoury pastry with daikon "Chinese white radish")
frito (fried chilicote)
cria cria v1, v2
eclairs, stuffed (sonho recheado)
migas (plain stuffing)
pão recheado (stuffed bread rolls)
pastelinha (tartlet)
pastry:
savoury (apa bico) v2
rotti or chapati (unleavened Indian bread)
sonho recheado (eclairs, stuffed)

SNACKS

bebinga:
cheese:
chilicote de rabono (savoury pastry with daikon "Chinese white radish"
cria cria v1, v2 (stuffed dumplings)
dumplings, stuffed (cria cria) v1, v2
miço cristão (soy bean paste) v2
noodles, fried (chao min) Shanghai style
pão recheado:
pastelinha (tartlet)
pork crackling with balichão v1, v2 (toresmo)
soy bean paste (miço cristão) v2
tartlet (pastelinha)
toresmo v1, v2 (pork crackling with balichão)

PICKLES, RELISHES

balichão (krill sauce):
frito (fried)
chutney de peixe cabuz (fish chutney)
egg plant pickle (sambal de brinjela)
escabeche (fish chutney)
esmargal v1, v2 (fish chutney)
fish chutney (chutney de peixe cabuz)
fish chutney: escabeche, esmargal v1, v2
krill sauce (balichão)
lemon, sweet (limão doce)
limão doce (sweet lemon)
sambal de brinjela (egg plant pickle)

MISCELLANEOUS


DOCES / SWEETS

barba (candy with sugar threads)
bean dessert (chacha)
broas de Macau (muffins, Macau style)
celicário (steamed muffins)
chacha (bean dessert)
Christmas sweets (fartes) v2
egg slices (fatias de ovos)
fatias de ovos (egg slices)
muffins, Macau style (broas de Macau)
muffins, steamed (celicário)

RECIPES

Contents
A B C D E F G I K L M O P Q S T U V W Y
 A 

ADE CABIDELA v1 Click hear sound

[Jugged duck – literally, duck giblets]

Ingredients

  • 1 duck
  • 600g duck (preferably fat) with skin
  • a little turmeric
  • a little spring onion, chopped fine
  • a little pepper
  • a little more ground coriander
  • a little cinnamon
  • a little vinegar
  • tamarind the size of a walnut

Method

Bring to the boil the tamarind in 4tbsp of water. Squeeze all the taste out of the tamarind and retain the juice.
When killing the duck have ready in a small bowl 1 dsp of vinegar and let the duck's blood into the bowl; this will make the blood liquid and not curdle. Put aside. Feather the duck, wash clean, taking out the intestines. Cut the duck in pieces.
Wash the pork cut in chunks and put with the duck in a pan with 2 tbsp hot lard and fry till brown. Bring out.
In the same pan, with the same lard in it, stir fry for 2 mins over a very low fire the turmeric, pepper, coriander, cinnamon and spring onions being careful not to burn. Add the blood, fry and go on stirring for 2 mins, then add the fried duck and pork. Cover with water and simmer. When half done, add tamarind water, simmer till tender.

ADE CABIDELA v2 Click hear sound

[Jugged duck]
(Mãe)

Ingredients

  • 1 duck
  • lard, butter or shortening
  • onions
  • tamarind
  • blood of duck
  • ½ lb pork
  • salt and pepper
  • saffron
  • coriander powder

Method

After killing the duck, put the blood in a bowl with a little vinegar to prevent it from congealing.
Put the lard in the pan, when melted and hot fry the onions until well browned. Add coriander, saffron. When well fried add tamarind, blood, duck, pork and let it boil until duck is tender, then add salt and pepper to taste.

ADE PASAP

[Duck with ginger]

Ingredients

  • 1 duck
  • about 10 cebola mato, washed and cut in half
  • 3-4 pieces sliced pickled ginger, chopped
  • 1 tsp ling fan

Method

Wash the duck thoroughly, season with salt and pepper. Place in a bowl with two thin slices of fresh ginger (to take away the fishy taste*. Cover the bowl and steam till tender, otherwise boil in ½ cup water with ginger, salt and pepper, then simmer till tender.
When the duck is ready heat its juices into a small saucepan (there should be about ¼ to ½ cup of fluid). Add the pickles and, if desired, the strips of ginger, liver, heart and gizzard, and bring to the boil. Add 1 tsp ling fan mixed with a little cold water and stir well. The consistency should be that of a thick sauce; if not thick enough, add a little more ling fan mixed with water.
Add sugar to taste and also if desired a little vinegar.
Cut the duck in half, then into long pieces and array neatly on a dish with the skin upward. Pour the prepared sauce over.

*     In the Macanese patois the phrase is para tirar amiz – to remove the unpleasant smell – for example, of fish. – HdA

ADE SANTA CLARA

[Duck with mushrooms and tomatoes]

Ingredients

  • 1 duck
  • spring onions, chopped
  • a little turmeric
  • garlic
  • 8 or 9 tomatoes, skinned and seeded
  • Chinese dried shitake mushrooms
  • 1 onion cut in eighths
  • 3 cloves of garlic
  • 2 small pieces of cinnamon
  • a few slices of ginger

Method

Wash the mushrooms and soak in a little hot water.
Fry the duck whole or cut in pieces until of a nice brown colour and put aside.
Fry separately the spring onions, turmeric, garlic and tomatoes and when well fried put in the fried duck mushrooms, onion, cloves, cinnamon and ginger.
Half cover the meat with water and simmer till tender.

AMARGOSO LORCHA* Click hear sound

[Stuffed bitter melon]

Ingredients

  • 3 amargoso (1 cate, 600g)
  • 1½ tomatoes, seeded and cut
  • 1 large onion, chopped
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • 1 tsp balichão
  • 2 cloves garlic, crushed (optional)
  • ¼ - ½ coconut juice
  • ½ lb (220g) minced pork
  • 2 eggs
  • salt and pepper

Method

Wash the amargoso and if you want to take the bitterness away, scrape off lightly the green on the outside. Cut into halves lengthwise or across and remove the seeds. Boil till tender and drain.
Scrape off the coconut flesh and get from it as much juice as possible, say 1 pint, and reserve the oily part till later.
Heat I tbsp lard, fry the garlic for 1 minute. Add onions and fry till half tender. Add the balichão and turmeric, fry for 5 minutes, then put in the tomatoes and fry all till quite dry.
Let it cool a little, add the raw minced pork, mix well and season. Beat lightly 1 egg and mix together to bind.
Fill the amargoso with the stuffing. Boil the thinner coconut juice in a fairly large pan and lay the amargoso neatly in it. The liquid should be just enough to cover the amargoso. Simmer gently for ½ hour, then add the thick coconut juice.
Before serving, array the amargoso neatly on a dish. Bring the gravy to the boil, stir just a couple of times and pour over the amargoso.

*     Lorcha was a type of sailing vessel used in Macau for transportation and for protecting shipping from pirates. The appearance of the stuffed bitter melon is reminiscent of the shape of the lorcha. – HdA

AMARGOSO WITH BEEF

[Bitter melon with beef]

Ingredients

  • 1 amargoso
  • ¼ lb (110g) beef, sliced
  • 1 tsp tai chiong or two see (Cantonese bean paste)
  • salt and pepper
  • ¼ tsp flour
  • 1 tbsp lard
  • 1 thin slice ginger

Method

Wash the amargoso , cut into halves across and remove the seeds. Boil till tender, drain and cut in slices.
Mix well the beef and flour.
Heat lard and fry the ginger, add tao chiong and fry for 2-3 minutes. Add beef and go on frying till ¼ cooked, then add the sliced amargoso and stir well for about 10mins. If too dry add a tbsp of boiling water. (Do not overcook the beef.)

AMONICA* Click hear sound

[Pork balls]

PORK BALLS

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (225g) lean minced pork
  • 4 spring onions, chopped fine
  • 1 tsp soy sauce
  • 1 thin slice bread soaked in cold water
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 2 tsp lard

Method

Mix well the pork, spring onions, soy sauce, bread, salt and pepper in a bowl and roll into amonica balls a little smaller than a walnut.
Heat the lard in a frying pan until very hot. Put in these amonicas being careful not to break them. Fry until nicely browned. Remove them from the lard and with the same lard make the gravy.

GRAVY

Ingredients

  • 2 cloves of garlic, crushed flat
  • 1 tsp soy sauce
  • about ¼ cup water
  • 2 spring onions
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Put the garlic cloves in the lard and fry till brown. Remove them, add the spring onions and fry for a minute. Then add the soy sauce and water and bring to the boil, put in the amonicas and simmer for 5 or ten minutes.

*     This recipe also appears, with minor variations, in Annie Sousa's collection.

APA BICO v2Click hear sound

[Savoury pastry]

FILLING

Ingredients

  • 2 bunches cheng choi (Cantonese salted vegetable)
  • ½ lb pork (110g), cut into small cubes
  • 3 squares yu deu fu, cut into small cubes
  • 2 spring onions, chopped
  • 1 oz (28g) small dried shrimps (ha mei)
  • dash of soy sauce
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 2-3 dsp lard

Method

Wash the cheng choi well, carefully removing all sand. Cut this into small squares.
Cut the shrimps, soften by soaking in just enough boiling water just to cover them.
Heat lard in a pan and fry the spring onions for a minute, then add the pork seasoned with a little salt and pepper and fry for 5 mins. Add the cheng choi and go on frying for a few minutes, stirring occasionally. Add the dried shrimps, soy sauce and a little more water to cover the ingredients, bring to the boil, simmer gently till meat is tender.
Add yu deu fu and cook for 10 mins, stirring well to mix. This filling should not be too dry: there should be 2 tsp of gravy left. Set aside and cool, stirring occasionally to distribute the moisture evenly.

PASTRY

Ingredients

  • 2 cups tan fan flour
  • 2 dsp lard
  • 2 cups water
  • ½ tsp salt

Method

Boil the water with lard and salt, add flour and, with a pair of chopsticks, stir contents briskly until all the water has been absorbed in the flour. Put on the lid tightly and set aside.
After ten minutes lay the dough on a board and knead to a smooth consistency. Take pieces the size of a walnut roll round, make a depression in the centre and mould into the shape of a small cup. Put in 1-2 tsp of the filling, bring the edges together and make a point on the top. This amount will make somewhere around two dozen.
Lay these apa bicos on a sieve (not a brass sieve as it may do harm) to fit above a pan ¼-filled with water. Steam for ½ hour. Take care: if the water touches the apa bicos they would be completed spoiled.
When ready to serve wet your hand and bring out each apa bico, taking care not to break. Lay on a dish and serve very hot.

ARROZ CACHÕRO Click hear sound

[Rice with mixed meats; lit., "dog rice"*]

Ingredients

  • rice
  • water
  • 2 lap yôk, cut in half
  • 2 legs salt duck
  • 2 Chinese sausage
  • 1 large mustardo branco
  • A little salt to taste

Method

Boil the lap yôk and salt duck in enough water to cover until rather tender.
Wash the rice, add the liquid from the boiled lap yôk and some water.
Wash the vegetable and cut into large pieces and fry in 1 dsp of hot lard ¼ done. To the rice add the vegetable, the lap yôk, salt duck and sausages. Boil and simmer till done. Take out the lap yôk and sausages and cut into thin slices. Dish out the rice first, then cover with all the meat.

*     In Portuguese cachôro means a young dog but Macanese use the word for a dog of any age. With so many things in it, this dish evokes the English phrase a "dog's breakfast".– HdA

ARROZ CARREGADO v2 Click hear sound

[Pressed rice]

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) Cantonese rice
  • 2½-3 oz (70-85g) lard
  • 6 spring onions, chopped fine
  • 1 tsp salt
  • l½ quart (1.8l) boiling water
  • 1 tsp salt

Method

Wash the rice.
Heat the lard and when quite hot add the salt, then the spring onions and fry for a 2 mins, taking care not to burn. Add rice and boiling water, stir well and cover. Bring to the boil, and turn the heat down to low heat and simmer. Stir well after 10 mins to ensure that the spring onions are well mixed and the bottom won't burn.
Close the lid immediately. After 20 mins if the rice is still grainy and there is no more water left, add about ¼ cup of boiling water, stir well and cover the lid tightly. If the rice is still grainy after 6 or 10 mins add another cup of water, stir well and cover till ready. The consistency will be something like very thick papa.
Turn cooked rice onto a large circular dish. Mould the rice so that the top is well flattened down and the sides neatly pushed in. With a knife dipped in lard smooth the surface. With the back of a knife score radial lines on the surface of the pressed rice.
Cut wedges when cold and serve with Porco Balichão Tamarinho.

ARROZ CHAOCHAO

[Fried rice]

Ingredients

  • leftovers of cold rice and cold meat such as chop suey, ham, porco salmourado (pickled pork with turmeric), chopped, with juices
  • 4 spring onions, chopped
  • 3 eggs
  • lard
  • salt and pepper

Method

Take two dsp lard and heat up in a pan, and when quite hot add ½ tsp salt and the chopped spring onions and fry for 1 minute. Then add the cold chopped cold meats fry for a few minutes, then add the juices and let it boil for ½ min. Add the rice and see that the rice takes the colour and taste of the meat juices. Lower the heat and stir well.
Lastly add the eggs fried apart with a little salt and pepper. Break these in small pieces and add to the rice.

ARROZ DE CHOCO Click hear sound

[Rice with squid]

Ingredients

  • 4 squid, washed well and cut in pieces
  • ½ - 1 tin tomato paste or 2 lb (900g) of fresh tomatoes cut in eighths
  • 2 onions, sliced
  • a little clove powder
  • 2 bay leaves
  • small pieces of ginger, chopped very fine

Method

Mix the choco with the ginger and set aside. Fry the onions, tomatoes, clove powder and bay leaves in 1 dsp lard, and when cooked add choco, raw rice, salt and pepper to taste, and sufficient water to boil the rice.

ARROZ DE TOMATE v1 Click hear sound

[Rice with tomatoes and chicken]

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken (2 lb, 900g), cut into pieces
  • 2 onions, thinly sliced
  • 1 tin tomato paste
  • rice, washed
  • water
  • salt and pepper

Method

Fry the onions in 1 dsp lard, salt and pepper; when light brown in colour add the chicken and fry for 7 mins. Then add water to cover and tomato paste and simmer till almost tender.
Put in the washed rice and water and mix well. Cover tightly, bring to the boil, then simmer till ready.

ARROZ DE TOMATE v2 Click hear sound

[Rice with tomatoes and chicken]
(Mãe)

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken, cut into small pieces
  • onions
  • tomatoes
  • butter or shortening
  • salt and pepper
  • hardboiled eggs, sliced (optional)
  • ham or bacon slices (optional)

Method

Melt the butter or shortening, fry the onions till browned then add tomatoes, salt and pepper.
Fry chicken pieces.
Boil the rice in stock or water, and when half done add tomatoes and seasoning fried in butter.
When serving place rice on a platter, cover with fried onions and chicken. Decorate with sliced hardboiled eggs, ham or bacon slices if desired.

ARROZ GORDO Click hear sound

[Rice with chicken, smoked sausages and ham (literally, fat rice)]

Ingredients

  • rice
  • 1 tin tomato paste
  • 1 whole chouriço*
  • ¼ lb (110g) sliced Chinese ham
  • 2 dsp chouriço oil
  • 1 chicken 2½ lb (1.1kg)
  • 16 sections cebola seca
  • 3 oz small raisins
  • 4 hardboiled eggs
  • 1 potato cut in fine strips
  • 6-8 dsp lard
  • 12 slices stale bread

Method

Cut the chicken into big chunks, put into a pan with just enough water to cover the meat. Add half a tsp of salt, bring to the boil then simmer till tender.
Peel the cebola seca and cut into very thin slices lengthwise. Wash raisins and wipe quite dry. Boil the eggs till quite hard; peel. Take two eggs and cut across in half, and decorate the ends of the rounds in a zigzag or any fancy shape. Cut the other two eggs lengthwise into quarters or eighths.
Cut potatoes into very fine strips and put these aside.
Put the rice in the pan, add water or soup, put in the tomato paste, chouriço and chouriço oil and ½ - 1 tsp of salt, cover the lid tightly and let it boil. After 5 mins boiling give the rice a good stir to integrate the taste of the tomato and chouriço but do this as rapidly as possible as otherwise the rice may not be well cooked. Close lid tightly and let it simmer at very low heat for ½ - 1 hour.
In the meatime, put the lard in a frying pan and when quite hot fry the cebola seca in slices till golden brown and drain on the paper. In the same way fry in turn the pieces of chicken the potato strips, the raisins and lastly the bread cut in thin slices. The cebola seca is fried first so that the flavour of it in the lard will infuse the rest of the fried ingredients.
When all the above has been fried to a golden colour, spread the rice over a large platter. Cut the chouriço in thin neat slices and put all over the top, then sprinkle over the cebola seca then add the potatoes, then ham, chicken and lastly the fried bread slices. Decorate the top with the cut eggs.

*      The original specified paio but Macanese often call chouriço paio.

ARROZ MILANESE

[Rice with chicken and mushrooms]

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken (2 lb , 900g)
  • rice
  • 2 dsp butter
  • water or chicken stock for boiling rice
  • 1-2 tsp flour
  • 1 cup milk
  • 1 dsp butter
  • ¼ lb (110g) cooked ham, diced
  • 1 tin champignon, cut in halves
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Wash the chicken well and season with salt and pepper. Steam without water or simmer in 1 cup of water till tender. Take out the meat and cut into neat ¼" inch cubes.
Take the liquid of the boiled chicken, add 2 dsp butter and enough water to boil the rice. Bring to the boil, reduce the heat and leave it for ¼ - ¾ of an hour.
Put one dsp of butter in a frying pan and when hot add the diced chicken, ham and champignon and fry for a minute then add a little chicken stock and milk. Mix 2 tsp flour in 2 tsp water to make rather a thick paste.
When the meat mixture comes to a boil add this paste to thicken, stirring well, bring to the boil and it is ready. (If a thicker sauce is desired, add more of the flour and water paste.)
When the rice is done, stir it well so that the butter which may be still on the surface is well mixed. Turn the rice on to a large dish and shape it like an oval crown. With a large spoon make a hollow at the centre large enough for the filling. Pour the chicken filling neatly into the dish and serve hot.
 B 

BAKED FISH

Ingredients

  • 1 Mandarin fish(1) 7-8 lb (32 - 3.6kg)
  • 2 lb (900g) large oysters or 1½ lb (700g) small oysters (very fresh)
  • 1½ lb (700g) large, very fresh shrimps, washed and shelled(2)
  • ¼ bottle of tomato ketchup
  • 4 dsp Worcestershire (Lea & Perrins) sauce
  • 1 dsp olive oil
  • 4 dsp grated cheese
  • 2 dsp butter
  • 8 olives chopped small
  • 8 olives for decoration
  • 1 onion
  • 1 large lemon, washed, dried with a cloth and cut into thin slices
  • salt and pepper
  • parsley

Method

Wash the fish in the usual way, wash clean, then put back the roe in its place.
Slit the fish from top to bottom almost to the backbone(3). Make cuts ¾ through the meat (but not so deep as to sever completely). Season the outside and the inside well with salt and pepper. Set aside.
Wash the shelled oysters in a little salt and water carefully taking away any residual bits of shell, then rinse with plain cold water and drain.
Mix well the chopped olives and onions, ½ the tomato ketchup, ½ Lea & Perrins sauce and ½ olive oil and ½ the cheese.
Lay the fish on a baking pan with a lip, and which is just large enough to fit the fish in. Fill the inside of the fish completely with this mixture.
Put dabs of butter on the fish and bake in a moderate oven till cooked. Take from the oven, add the shrimps on the gravy and return to the oven for five minutes till the shrimps are cooked. Take from the oven again and add oysters to the gravy and put in again just long enough to heat the oysters but not cook them as they would be tough.
Have a very large dish ready. It will require two people, using 2 or 3 large spoons, to transfer the fish carefully to the dish without breaking. Pour the gravy, shrimps and oysters to cover the whole fish.
Mix the other half of the two sauces with the remainder of the chopped olives and cheese and pour all over. Sprinkle with the rest of the cheese.
Decorate with overlapping slices of lemon over the centre of the fish from head to tail and with the 8 olives standing vertically if possible. Add a few pieces of parsley if desired.
(1)     Also known as Chinese perch – see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandarinfish
(2)     These would probably be called prawns in English-speaking countries.
(3)     The original wording was "Slit the fish by the back very near the bone from top to bottom but not the head". It is unclear what was meant. I hope that my wording correctly reflects Guilly's intent. - HdA

BALICHÃO/BALICHUNG v3 Click hear sound

[krill* sauce]
For interest this recipe is reproduced here first verbatim and then in edited form.
  • 10 cates camarões (shrimps)**
  • cates sal grosso
  • 1 avo de pimenta inteira branco
  • 1 avo de pimenta pó
  • cates de cinho fogo (Sam cheng chow in Cantonese)
  • 20 folhas de louro
  • 10 chilis
  • uma pitada de salitre
  • 2 limóes (1 cortado em roda e outra só casca)
Pick the little stones and straw that may be found in the shrimps. These are fresh shrimps (not salted), so 1 think they ought to be washed. Up to the present time these shrimps cannot be got in Shanghai, but in Hong Kong, so 1 have not tried yet. Japanese shrimps got here are salted for the purpose of exporting and they may serve the purpose if experimented. These shrimps are very small size or just a little bigger. Crush the shrimps in a paco dente (Cantonese bowl for washing rice with sharp strips in the inside). When they are well mashed and fine, put in an earthenware jar with the rest of the ingredients, stir well, cover tightly so that no air gets in. Keep all this in a dark cool place for a couple of months.

Ingredients

  • 10 catties (6kg) krill*
  • 1.5kg coarse salt
  • 1 cent's worth of whole white pepper
  • 1 cent's worth of powdered pepper
  • 1.5 kg of cinho fogo (sam cheng chow in Cantonese)
  • 20 bay leaves
  • 10 chillies
  • a pinch of saltpeter
  • 2 lemons (one sliced and only the peel of the second)

Method

Pick out the little stones and straw that may be found in the fresh krill.
Stir together all the ingredients, put them in an earthenware jar, cover tightly so that no air gets in. Keep in a dark cool place for a couple of months.
*     Macanese recipes commonly refer to this ingredient as "small shrimps" but I believe that they are krill. – HdA
**     Japanese salted shrimps, which are available, are very small and may perhaps serve if crushed and mashed. – Guilly

BALICHÃO FRITO

[Fried balichão]

Ingredients

  • ¼ cup melted lard
  • 1 large onion or 8 spring onions, diced
  • 2 tsp balichão

Method

Heat the lard and when quite hot add onion or spring onions and fry till tender. Add the balichão and fry for 2-3 mins.

BARBA Click hear sound

[candy with sugar threads – literally, "beard"]
This is a sweet that many of the older generation would remember well. Unfortunately, the method described here is not altogether clear. However, it is not readily available today and would be difficult to prepare. (One street-side vendor in Chinatown in Sydney, Australia, still sold this in 2010; he said there was then only one shop still selling this in Macau.)

Ingredients

  • 1 catty (610g) wheat flour1, roasted with a few spoonsful of butter;
  • 1 catty (610g) jagra
1      In her book Macanese Cooking, Cecilia Jorge says that roasted bean powder is used.

Method

Two people are needed for this.
In a saucepan, dissolve the jagra in a little water, bring to the boil and strain. Wash the saucepan, return the dissolved jagra to it, boil and divide into two portions.
Each person takes one portion and works it by repeatedly pulling, doubling over and joining the ends; initially it is only possible to pull it a distance of about 16cm but later it can be pulled about half a metre2.
When the jagra is almost white, make it in a circle and envelop it in the roasted flour.
2     The directions are not too clear. From my vague recollection, the jagra had to be thickened to the consistency of very thick molasses and worked vigorously while still warm. (Obviously the consistency and temperature are critical.) By repeatedly pulling (and, I think, rolling in the flour) and doubling over, the strands of jagra are progressively reduced in diameter until they are as thin as hair – hence thev3, name.
This sweet can be bought in a stall in Chinatown (Dixon Street) in Sydney; there was apparently only one person left in Macau (in 2011) who still makes and sells this sweet– HdA

BEBINGA DE INHAME

[Chinese white radish pudding (wu tao kow in Cantonese)]

Ingredients

  • 3 lb (1.3kg) taro
  • 3 lb (1.3kg) Chinese white radish cut or chopped
  • 1 lb (450g) pork bones and some heads and feet of chicken for the stock
  • ½ lb pork
  • 4 oz (110g) ham or cha siu
  • 2 oz (56g) rice flour
  • 10 cloves of garlic, crushed
  • 2 spring onions, chopped
  • balichão
  • pepper to taste

Method

Make a stock with the pork and chicken bones.
Peel taro and white radish and boil in the stock until tender, then mince. Fry garlic in fat till golden then remove them. Fry the balichão and spring onions for a couple of minutes, add pork and fry well. Remove from the fire, add minced taro. Ham can be added into the mixture as well or used to decorate the top.
Steam until done.

For variety, cha sui, ham, Chinese sausages or any suitable meat can be put in with the minced pork.

BEBINGA DE RABONO v3 Click hear sound

[Chinese white radish pudding (lo pak kow in Cantonese)]

Ingredients

  • Rice flour (as needed)
  • ¼ lb pork
  • 4-6 large Chinese white radish (especially good in Autumn)
  • 2-3 tbsp chopped raw Chinese ham
  • 10 spring onions, finely chopped
  • 4 cloves of garlic
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • Lard
  • Water

Method

Mince the pork.
Cut white radish in thin 3" (8cm) strips.
Crush the garlic. Heat lard in a rather large pan and, when quite hot, fry the garlic with skin on until light brown.
In turn add and fry the spring onions for a minute and the minced pork with salt and pepper for 5-10 minutes. Then add the white radish, stirring occasionally till cooked.
Remove the garlic and skin, add ¾ of the ham.
Reduce to a low heat, add the flour and stir well until thoroughly blended. Lastly add the boiling water gradually, until the mixture comes to a moist but pasty consistency.
Turn this on to a cake tin, sprinkle the quarter of the chopped ham left and some diced spring onions on the surface and steam for ½ - 1 hour. Cool down a little, turn on a dish, surface up and serve.
Alternatively, instead of a cake tin, use a round pyrex dish which can be brought to table without turning out.

BEBINCA DE NABOS (LÓ-PAK-COU) v4

This is an interesting old recipe which uses raw pork and salt meat instead of Chinese sausages and Chinese roast pork in the mixture. It does not give the precise amount of rice flour, specifying only that there should be equal volumes of rice flour and liquid, regardless of how much water is used in the cooking. Because of its Chinese origin, the ingredients in the decoration would be Chinese: chouriço (sausage) = Chinese lap cheong, camarões (shrimps) = dried Chinese shrimps. Although it does not specify it, the meats must of course be minced or finely chopped. It says that the secret is that the mould has to be hot before being filled by the mixture.

Texto original / Original text:

Faz-se um guisado de meia lb. de porco, temperado com sal e pimenta, ¼ lb. de carne salgada, 3 lbs. de nabos cortados muito fino (podendo-se passar por um raspador special) e cebola verde: deita-se água suficiente para o cozer.

Ao reitrá-lo do lume, faz-se do seguinte modo:

Separa-se o molho do guisado e verifica-se quantos cups contém; se, por acaso, contiver 2 cups de molho, são 2 cups de farinha de arroz que se dissolve no monho. Depois junta-se o nabo. O segredo desta bebinca é o seguinte: A forma deverá estar quente quando se deitar a massa. O mesmo número de cups de caldo para igual número de cups de farinha de arroz.

Deita-se água num tacho, quando estiver fervida, deita-se entáo esta massa, já no forma podendo-se põr por cima cebola verde, camarões, chouriço cortado e uma colher de banha derretida; quando estiver pronta e logo que se reitra do lume, convinha fosse borrifada de gergelim torrado. Coze-se durante uma hora em banho-maria.

BEEF RICE

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) minced beef
  • rice
  • water
  • ½ lb (220g) lb minced bacon or chouriço cut into very small cubes
  • 1/2 tin tomato paste
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Put 1 dsp lard in a pan, and when hot fry the mince very well, seasoning with salt and pepper. Add water, bring to the boil, then put in the rice and tomato paste. Mix well, bring to the boil, then simmer till done. Serve in cup shape.

BIFE MACAU v2

[beef Macau style]

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (225g) tender beef
  • 2 cloves of garlic
  • 2 spring onions, chopped
  • ½ tsp vinegar
  • 1½ tsp soy sauce
  • 2 dsp lard
  • 5 dsp water
  • salt to taste

Method

Crush the skinned garlic and ginger flat. Chop the spring onions, garlic and ginger till very fine. Put in a bowl and add the soy sauce and vinegar and mix well.
Cut the beef in thin slices* and bang each slice flat with a rolling pin. Coat both sides with a little flour and soak the slices in the garlic mixture till ready to fry.
Fry each slice for a minute or two. When ready place in a dish and put the rest of the garlic mixture in the same frying pan, add a little water for gravy, add salt as needed.

*     I recall that the beef is cut across the grain to produce wide thin steaks – HdA

BIFE PÓ DE BOLACHA Click hear sound

[Crumbed beef]

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (225g) tender beef, in ¼" slices
  • 2 spring onions, chopped fine
  • 2 tsp grated cheese
  • ½ teasp flour
  • 1-2 eggs, beaten lightly
  • toasted bread crumbs
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Cut the beef in ¼" slices and beat down flat. Season with salt and pepper on both sides. Sprinkle the spring onion and cheese on both sides and press firmly down, then the flour on both sides and again press firmly. Dip each slice into the beaten eggs, shake off the excess, coat in bread crumbs and deep fry.

BONELESS DUCK

Ingredients

  • 1 duck
  • ¼ cup barley
  • 2 oz raw Chinese ham, cut in small cubes
  • about 10 acorns (pa kok)
  • 6 Chinese mushrooms
  • liver and gizzard of duck or chicken, diced
  • salt and pepper
  • lotus root (optional)

Method

To bone the duck, cut along the backbone and carefully remove all the bones except the wing tips.
Wash the barley and cook it in ½ cup water or pork or chicken stock until no liquid is left.
Wash the mushrooms and soak in a little boiling water till soft, discard the stems and cut into strips.
Shell the acorns and take the brown outside skin off.
Mix all these ingredients.
Spread the duck flat on a board with the skin downwards. Season with salt and pepper and lay the filling on neatly, carefully pushing some into the legs and wings. Bring together the two sides of the skin and sew up neatly so that no filling is visible. Place on a bowl, cover, and steam till tender.

BREDO RABA RABA Click hear sound

[Mixed vegetables (bredo is archaic Portuguese for mixed vegetables)]

Ingredients

  • 1 medium-size cabbage
  • 6 cloves garlic, crushed
  • 1 bitter melon
  • 1 dsp shrimp sauce (balichão)
  • 1 lb (450g) Chinese vegetable (kong che)
  • 4 dsp lard*
  • 8 strings Chinese long beans (kon dau)

*     Excess fat from Porco Balichão Tamarindo can be used instead of lard.

Method

Wash cabbage and cut in rather big pieces. Cut bitter melon lengthwise, remove seeds and cut in thin slices. Cook in boiling water for 5 minutes and strain.
Wash and cut the rest of the vegetables.
Put lard in a large pan and when very hot add crushed garlic, fry till golden, then remove it. Add balichão to the hot lard, fry for 2-3 minutes, then add all the vegetables, cover pan and fry till cooked, lifting the lid and stirring occasionally.

BROAS DE MACAU Click hear sound

[Christmas muffins, Macau style]

Ingredients

  • 10 egg whites
  • 6 egg yolks
  • 1 cup of fine sugar
  • 1 tsp baking powder

Method

Grease some aluminium moulds with butter and dust with flour. Invert to remove excess flour.
Beat the egg whites with a pinch of salt to the peak stage.
Beat egg yolks with sugar, sift in a little flour, fold in some egg whites and repeat. Mix all well.
Pour into moulds and put in oven for 30 minutes.
Remove from mould when warm. When fully cool, place on an aluminium tray and return to a slow oven to toast well.
Store in tins.
 C 

CABBAGE ROLLS

Ingredients

  • 1 large cabbage
  • 1 small onion, finely diced
  • 1 lb (450g) minced pork, beef or chicken
  • ¼ cup milk
  • 1 oz (28g) margarine
  • ¼ teaspoon nutmeg
  • 2 thin slices bread, soaked in cold water(2)
  • seasoning

Method

Carefully remove the leaves of the cabbage, wash and put in a pan with just enough water to cover them. Cook till half tender, strain, saving the water for later.
Fry diced onions in ½oz (14g) margarine and mix with the minced meat. Squeeze water from bread and add to pork mixture. Add nutmeg and seasoning and mix all these well together and put aside
.
Lay one large cabbage leaf flat on a plate and three or four smaller ones over it. Take a teaspoonful of the mixture, smooth into a sausage shape, lay on one end of the cabbage, fold the two sides and roll.
When all cabbage and meat is used, tie the folded cabbage leaves together carefully with string and put them neatly in a pan. Add the cabbage water, boil, then simmer gently for 10 minutes. Strain cabbage and lay neatly on a platter.
Add milk to the gravy, thicken with flour and water, add margarine and bring to the boil stirring all the time. Pour the gravy over the dished up cabbage. Cooked rice can be used instead of bread, if preferred).
(1)     From Annie Sousa's collection
(2)     Cooked rice can be used instead of bread.

CABBAGE ROLLS WITH RICE

[Jewish dish]

Ingredients

  • 1 cup rice
  • ½ lb chicken meat, minced
  • 5 stalks of celery, finely chopped
  • 1 large onion, finely chopped
  • ½ a cherry size of powdered citric acid
  • salt and pepper
  • 1 large cabbage

Method

Wash the rice well and drain.

Mix the chicken, celery and onions well with the drained raw rice and season with salt and pepper, and powdered citric acid.
Remove the leaves of the cabbage and wash them well.
Boil about ¼ pan of water, put in a cabbage leaf, and bring to the boil with the lid off (to preserve the green colour). Drain and remove. If the stem of the leaf is a bit too hard to bend, slice a small piece off.
Take one large leaf - or two if more vegetables are liked. Lay flat, put 1 or 2 spoons of the prepared ingredients on the end, fold the two corners and roll loosely so as to give the rice space to expand. Lay each one neatly on a pan, and when all the rice is used, add enough water or stock just enough to cover the rolls. Put a little citric acid in the water to keep the cabbage firm.
Cover the lid tightly, bring to the boil and simmer over a very low fire for to 1 hour. When ready remove carefully.

CALDEIRADA v1 Click hear sound

[Stew with chicken, pork and Chinese sausages]

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken
  • 300g beef
  • 300g pork, Chinese sausage or piece of ham
  • 4 Chinese sausages cut in pieces, or 1 pé de presunto (ham hock)
  • 12 slices fried bread
  • 4 hard boiled eggs
  • 6 large tomatoes, cut in eighths and seeded
  • 4 large onions, cut in eighths
  • 4 quartered potatoes

Method

Put the chicken, beef and pork in a pot and cover with water. Bring to the boil and simmer until the meats are half tender, then add the sausages. (If using a ham hock boil it separately some hours beforehand as it may take rather long to tenderise; also cook the potatoes separately.
Cut the meats in pieces.
In a separate pan fry the onions and tomatoes until just moist, season, add all the cooked meats and simmer.
Before serving add a wineglass of white wine.
Spread the fried bread on a dish, cove with the meat and decorate the top with hard-boiled eggs.

CALDEIRADA v2 Click hear sound

[Stew with fish, seafoods and beef]
(Mãe)

Ingredients

  • fried fish
  • corned beef
  • stock from pork bones
  • tomatoes
  • cinnamon
  • whole cloves
  • butter
  • shrimps(1)
  • lobsters
  • crouton of bread
  • olive oil
  • garlic
  • onions
  • oysters
  • white wine
  • hard-boiled eggs, diced
  • potatoes

(1)     In some countries these would be called prawns – shrimps would be the small crustaceans.

Method

Shell the shrimps, boil in water and strain the stock.
Heat oil in a saucepan and fry the garlic till brown; add onions and only half cook them, then add tomatoes and fry well. Then the shrimps, lobsters, oysters, etc., should be put in the pan with the stock from the shrimp heads. When the mixture starts boiling add salt and pepper according to taste, then put in the corned beef cut in pieces.
20 minutes before serving throw in the fish and wine and serve with croutons of fried bread. Garnish with diced boiled eggs and serve with boiled potatoes(2).

(2)     The original recipe did not specify how the potatoes were to be cooked. I surmise that they could be added to the stew when the corned beef is half cooked. – HdA

CALDO DE COSTELA DE PORCO Click hear sound or MÃO DE PORCO

[Pork rib or trotter soup]

Ingredients

  • ½ lb pork rib or trotters
  • 1-2 tbsp barley, washed
  • sliced ginger
  • about 2 cups water
  • choco seco (dried squid) or any dried shellfish, washed (optional)
  • salt to taste

Method

Wash the meat, cut into slices ½" to 1" thick. Put into pot, add water, ginger, salt and barley and dried shellfish (if desired). Bring to the boil, then simmer till tender and serve with rice.

CALDO VERDE Click hear sound

[Potato and green vegetable soup]

Ingredients

  • 4 large potatoes, peeled and diced
  • 2 onions, peeled and diced
  • 2 dsp olive oil
  • salt to taste
  • 1 small cabbage*
  • 1 little bunch of any savoury herb
  • 1 quart (1.2l) water

Method

Put cold water in a pan, add the potatoes, onions, olive oil and salt and boil till the potatoes are quite tender.
Wash the cabbage and cut into very thin threads and add to the soup. Boil till cooked. Do not overboil the cabbage as it will spoil the colour.
Instead of potatoes bread crumbs may be substituted. Before serving add a little bunch of any savoury herb.
*     This is a traditional Portuguese soup, made with kale, shredded very fine using a special device. Where kale is not available, modern recipes recommend the use of the leaves of Chinese broccoli (kai lan).

CALF'S TONGUE

(Mãe)

Ingredients(1)

  • 1 calf's tongue, well cleaned(2)
  • lard for frying
  • 1 medium onions
  • 2 spring onions
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • 1 cup coconut milk
  • 1 tsp tamarind juice (optional)
  • chopped chilli to taste (optional)
  • 1 piece of ginger, sliced (optional)
  • 2 tomatoes, diced (optional)

(1)     Proportions were not given in recipe. I had to guess these amounts.
(2)     Normally tongue would have to cleaned by parboiling and skinning. – HdA

Method*

In a saucepan just large enough to hold the tongue, gently fry the onions and spring onions, then add the tongue and the rest of the ingredients, cover with water, bring to the boil and simmer until tender.
*     Only a skimpy description was given in the original recipe; I have had to guess the rest. – HdA

CANJE DE FRANGO Click hear sound

[Chicken congee]

Ingredients

  • rice
  • water
  • 2 pieces of cinnamon (the size of 2 nibs)
  • 3 spring onions tied in a knot
  • 1 tender chicken, 1½ - 2 lb (680-900g)
  • ½ lb (220g) raw Chinese ham
  • a little salt to taste

Method

Wash the rice, put in a large pot and add water, cinnamon, string onions, chicken and raw ham. Bring to the boil, then simmer until all is quite tender and the rice is quite soft and starchy.
Remove the bunch of spring onions and the cinnamon. Break the chicken in pieces and cut the ham in thin strips if possible. The liver and gizzard are also to be cut in thin strips.
Do not serve the neck, backbone or breast bones of the chicken.

CANJE DE OSSOS DE PORCO Click hear sound

[Pork rib congee]

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) pork rib, cut in 1" lengths
  • rice
  • water
  • balichão
  • 1 tsp lard
  • 1 tsp salt
  • ½ lb (220g) kai choi (Mustard green)

Method

Marinade the ribs in the salt for about a couple of days as it will taste better on the third day. Wash the salt off the ribs a little, put in a pan with the rice and water, bring to the boil and simmer till all is quite tender.
Fry the balichão in hot lard, then add the kai choi cut in thin slanting slices, fry till half tender and add to the canje. Simmer for 10-20 mins. and it will be ready to serve.

CAPÃO A MODA DE MÕLHO DE PERDIZ

[Capon with liver (literally, with the style of partridge) gravy]
(Cheq. Carneiro)

Ingredients

  • 1 cold roasted or steamed chicken
  • 6 duck livers
  • 4 hardboiled eggs
  • salsa (parsley) or celery, chopped
  • lemon juice
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • olive oil to taste

Method

Cook livers in a little water then mince together with the hardboiled yolks. Mix in the rest of the ingredients*, make it a thin paste and thickly coat the chicken.
Serve in a large platter with parsley decoration. A slice of neatly cut bread, fried golden brown, can be served under each piece of chicken.
*     Alternatively, soak the chopped garlic overnight in lemon juice, drain when using the next day, and just use the juice instead of the chopped parsley. You will find it a real tip top taste.

CAPELA v2 Click hear sound

[Meat loaf (literally, chapel or shrine)]

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (225g) pork with skin
  • 1 thin slice bread, soaked in cold water and squeezed
  • 3 tsp grated cheese
  • 4 spring onions or 1 small onion, chopped very fine
  • 1 large egg, lightly beaten
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 1 oz (28g) almonds
  • toasted bread crumbs

Method

Take a 1-oz (28g) piece of the fat from the pork and pass the rest through the mincing machine.
Mix well the minced pork, bread, cheese, onion, egg, salt and pepper. Cut the 1 oz of pork fat into thin strips about 3½" (9cm) long.
Put the almonds in boiling water for a couple of minutes, peel off the skin and open into halves.
Heap the pork mixture on a a baking tray and shape into a round or oval-shape about l½" high and 1¾" wide(1). Smooth it and make it very neat. Array the strips of fat radially on top. Sprinkle with toasted bread crumbs and decorate the top neatly with the almonds sticking quarter way into the meat.
Bake in a moderate oven for ½ hour or till done. The surface should be nicely brown and the almonds crispy. Remove from the oven, loosen the bottom carefully with a flexible knife and place neatly on a flat dish.

CAPELA v3 Click hear sound

[Meat loaf (literally, chapel or shrine)]
This delicious dish, that few know how to prepare, is not difficult, but can be done in an instant. The secret of capela is this: it has to be made with pork that is not too fat.

Ingredients

  • 1½ lb (675g) minced pork
  • soft centre of 1 slice of bread, soaked in cold water
  • diced olives
  • slices of bacon, lightly salted
  • 1 onion, diced
  • ½ dried onion, diced

Method

Squeeze water from the bread.
Put enough lard in a saucepan to brown the onions and dried onions. When done, add the minced pork seasoned with salt and pepper. Stir well and add the bread and diced olives.
Turn out onto a round oven-proof plate. While still hot, use a wooden spoon to shape into a mound with a hole in the middle. Carefully, with the aid of another spoon, keep pressing and shaping. When warm, press down with your hands.
Sprinkle with bread crumbs, grated cheese and a tbsp of melted lard, array with slices of bacon fat and put into a hot oven. The plate should not be exposed to the full force of the fire.
When the bacon is cooked, the capela is done.
You can also use diced ham, chouriço or any salt meat.

CARANGEIJO BAFADO Click hear sound

[Boiled crabs (literally, stifled crab(1))]

Ingredients

  • 12 good sized Shanghai crabs
  • 6 spring onions
  • ¼ - ½ cup ló chiu
  • 2 pieces ginger $ size each

Method

Wash crabs well in cold water, brushing the stomach well. Put them in layers in a large pan with their backs up. Put on the lid so that they cannot creep out.
Add ló chiu, ginger and spring onions and boil for 20 to 30 minutes or till quite red.
(1)     Why is it so called? – HdA

CARANGEIJO CHAOCHAO Click hear sound

[Stir-fried crabs]

Ingredients

  • 6 crabs

Method

Wash the crabs take the round back off and cut into halves if desired. Remove all the hairy strips inside and cut the body of the crabs in two.
(No other ingredients were given, nor instructions on how to fry the crabs. – HdA)

CARANGEIJO DE DELMIRA

[Crab with sour plums]

Ingredients

  • 6 crabs
  • 3 dsp lard
  • 1 dsp balichão
  • 2 chopped garlic*
  • 2 mni garganta (sour plum)
  • ½ tsp of chili miçó

Method

Wash the crabs take the round back off and cut into halves Fry in 3 dsp lard and 1 dsp balichão. When well fried add 2 chopped garlics, 2 mni garganta (sour plum) and ½ tsp of chili miçó and fry for a few minutes. Lastly add the crabs and fry for 8 minutes. Put in about cup of water into it and cook until done.
*     It was not made clear whether to use 2 cloves or 2 whole heads of garlic. – HdA

CARIL DE GALINHA Click hear sound

[Chicken curry]

PASTE

Ingredients

  • 1 coffee spoon (½ tsp?) cummin powder
  • 3 tsp coriander powder
  • 1 coffee spoon (½ tsp?) peppercorn
  • 6 dried hot chillies
  • 2 small pieces of açafrão*
  • 5 cloves of garlic

*     Probably meant to be fresh turmeric root.

Method

With a mortar and pestle crush the ingredients to as fine a powder as possible.

CHICKEN

Ingredients

  • 1 middle-sized tender chicken, cut into pieces
  • 1 onion, cut into eighths
  • ½ grated coconut
  • some of the juice of the coconut
  • 1 walnut-sized piece of tamarind
  • 2 tsp lard
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Bring to the boil the tamarind in 4tbsp of water. Squeeze all the taste out of the tamarind and retain the juice.
Heat the lard in the pan and when quite hot add onions and salt. When this is soft add the pieces of chicken and fry for 5 mins, stirring occasionally. Then add the prepared paste and a good portion of juice taken from the half coconut, just about covering the chicken in the pan.
Boil and then let it simmer until tender. When the chicken is done add the tamarind juice and bring to the boil.

CARIL DOCE

[Sweet curry]

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken, cut in pieces
  • ginger
  • onions
  • garlic
  • turmeric
  • cummin
  • tamarind
  • sugar
  • a few strips of pork fat

Method

Soak the tamarind in a little hot water and squeeze. Keep the liquid and discard the tamarind pulp.
Cut the ginger, onions and garlic in very thin slices and fry in 1 dsp of very hot lard. Add the turmeric, cummin and the strips of pork fat and fry for a few minutes and then add the chicken, tamarind water and simmer. Add a little sugar.

CELICÁRIO*

[steamed cup cakes]

Ingredients

  • 12 egg yolks
  • 4 egg whites
  • 1 bottle of fresh milk
  • ½ lb (225g) rock sugar
  • vanilla essence as desired

Method

Mix all the ingredients very well and push through a strainer. Put into small moulds and cook in a double boiler (bain-Marie), while putting charcoal embers on the inverted lid of the saucepan in order to create little flecks on the tops of the celicário. Do not remove from the moulds; they will be easily separated later.
*    This is one of the most ancient of dishes.
 

CHACHA Click hear sound

[bean dessert]

Ingredients

  • 1½ coconut, grated
  • 1 catty (610g) jagra
  • 1 lb (450g) green beans (lôc-tau in Cantonese)
  • ½ cup sago
  • 1 lb (450g) taro, peeled and cut in cubes
  • 2-3 pieces of rock sugar, lightly rinsed

Method

Pour 10-12 cups of boiling water over the grated coconut and cover with a lid. When cool, squeeze out the juice with both hands and strain.
Wash the sago and soak in water for 2-3 hours. Dissolve the jagra in a little water and strain.
Scrub the beans in the basin used for washing rice to loosen the skins. Cook the coconut juice and beans and remove the skins of the beans. Add the taro and the sago and when cooked add the jagra liquid and the rock sugar. Continue cooking for some time and serve hot.

CHAO MIN SHANGHAI STYLE

[Fried noodles Shanghai style]
(Dora Gutteres)

Ingredients

  • ½ lb pork, cut in thin strips
  • other meats: cha siu, chicken, Chinese sausages, dried shrimps, etc (optional)
  • ham, cut in thin strip (optional)
  • 2 thin slices ginger
  • 1 doz medium-sized dried Chinese mushrooms
  • About ¼ cup sung yue (Chinese cooking oil)
  • 3 small bamboo shoots, cut in thin strips
  • 2 spring onions cut in large pieces
  • 1 lb (450g) wong nga che (Mostarda Nanking), cut lengthwise in thin strips so that it will not break too easily when cooked.
  • 2 tsp ló chiu
  • 2 lb raw noodles

Method

Soak the mushrooms in a little hot water, discard the stems and cut in strips. Save the liquid.
Dried shrimps must be soaked in boiling water before use. Boil about 3/4 pot of water with ½ tsp salt, put in the noodles . Boil till ¾ cooked, bring out and rinse in 2 or 3 changes of cold water. Drain thoroughly and lay on a large dish and when quite cold, mix about ¼ cup sung yue carefully so as not to break. Set aside.
Put about 1 tbsp lard in a frying pan and, when quite hot, add ginger and spring onions, then the pork and fry for 2 minutes, after which add immediately the ló chiu (if ló chiu is put in later the taste of the wine will be too prominent).
After a minute, add mushrooms, bamboo shoots and all the prepared ingredients, stir for a few minutes, then add a little soy sauce, the mushroom water and about ¼ cup of water.
Fry the wong gna che separately in a little lard and, when half done, add to the meat mixture. Simmer till tender, add salt to taste and some ajinomoto if desired. By this time the gravy should be reduced to 1-2 tbsp. Put aside and keep warm.
In a bowl mix ½ cup soy sauce, a pinch of salt and ½ tsp ajinomoto.
Heat 3-4 tbsp of lard to a large frying pan (preferably a Chinese wok). When it is boiling ho±, pour in the soy sauce mixture, fry for a few seconds, then add the noodles, mixing constantly so that the noodles will take the colour and taste of the soy sauce. Stir for a few minutes, being careful not to burn, mix in the meat preparation well with chopsticks to avoid breaking the noodles. When well mixed end boiling hot, lay on a large dish and serve.
If desired, half of the meat mixture can be put over the noodles instead of mixing through. This noodle should be very dry.

CHAU CHAU DE PELE or TACHO v3 Click hear sound

[Stew with puffed pork skin and mixed meats and vegetables – literally "pan" in Portuguese(1)]

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken (2 lb, 900g), cut into rather large pieces
  • 2 strips of Chinese roast pork lap yôk
  • 3 chouriço sutate
  • 1 large ham hock
  • 1 large pig trotter, cut across in 1" chunks
  • ½ lb (220g) beef, cut in ¾" cubes
  • 1 lb (450g) corned beef
  • 4 nervos de vaca
  • ½ lb (225g) pele torado
  • 2 large cabbages cut in large pieces and washed well
  • 20 Chinese dried mushrooms
  • 10 inhame chicoo (optional)
  • 1 dsp lard
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Prepare beforehand the nervo by boiling in 3 cups of water for about 5-6 hours until quite tender and the liquid is thick. Retain the liquid. Cut the nervo into 1½" lengths.
Boil the ham hock, pig trotter and corned beef until quite soft. Retain the water in which they were cooked. When cool cut the corn beef into ¾" cubes, cut the hock and trotters transversely into 1" chunks.
Wash the dried mushrooms and soak them in a cup of boiling water. Discard the stems.(2)
Wash lap yôk well with hot water and cut into ½" pieces.
Scrape the skin off the inhame chicoo and cut into halves lengthwise.
Wash the pele torado well in hot water, then soak in boiling water till soft. Rinse 2 or 3 times and take off the boil. Cut them into 2" squares.
Heat lard and fry the chicken, lap yôk, choriço sutate, pig's trotter and beef together. When well fried (takes about 15 minutes) add enough of the liquids from cooking the hock and nervo to cover and simmer till half cooked, then add the ham hock, corned beef, inhame chicoo, mushrooms and nervo. Boil for 20 mins., then add the pele. After 10 mins. put in the cabbage and cook until tender enough to serve.
Slice the sausages neatly and serve over the dished up meat.(3)
(1)     See also tacho
(2)     Keep the water in which the mushrooms were soaked; it gives flavour to many dishes.
(3)     It is not mentioned, but obviously the sausages would have to be boiled at some stage.

CHAWAN NO MUSHI

[Fish with mushrooms and bamboo shoots]

Ingredients

  • 6 eggs
  • 3 small teacups water
  • 1 teacup Japanese soy sauce
  • 1 tsp sugar
  • 1 large orange, cut in 1" pieces
  • 2 prawns, cut up
  • 2 cooked bamboo shoots in thin, wide slices - preferably cut lengthwise
  • 1 oz (28g) mushrooms
  • 1 small Japanese peixe tabua, sliced
  • orange cut into 1" pieces
  • chicken fillet (optional)

Method

Beat 6 whole eggs for 2 minutes, add cold water, soy sauce and sugar and stir well.
Soak the mushrooms in a little hot water, discard the stems, and then cut in half if desired.
Put a little of each of these ingredients into each chawan no mushi bowl, then put the egg mixture in each, stir lightly and steam for a few minutes till set and serve.
Chicken fillet cut in pieces is delicious if added to the above.

CHEESE ROLLS

(Annie)

Ingredients

  • 6 very thin slices of square-loaf bread
  • 6 dsp grated cheese
  • butter

Method

Cut the square bread in very thin slices, trim off the crust, spread butter and sprinkle with grated cheese.
Roll up each slice neatly and rather tightly, place edge downwards on a baking tray and bake or grill till the outside is crisp. Turn and crisp the other side.
If the edge won't keep down, dampen right across with cold water and press carefully.
The griller will do instead of the oven. Serve very hot.
These rolls are very suitable to be served for tea and they look very pretty.

CHEESE TOAST v2

Ingredients

  • 6 slices toast bread about ½ inch thick
  • 6 tbsp grated cheese
  • mustard
  • eggs
  • 1 tsp butter
  • dash of cayenne pepper
  • salt to taste

Method

Beat the eggs (whites and yolks) for two minutes, add all the dry ingredients and lastly the butter to make a moist paste. (A bit of milk may be added if it is too thick.)
Under a griller, toast the sliced bread on one side and remove from the griller. On the other side put on a good layer of cheese paste and smooth the surface. Toast the cheese side to light brown. (Do not have the heat too high when toasting the cheese side as the inside may be raw.)
Remove from the griller, cut off the crusts neatly and then cut the toast into halves triangularly. Dish up in a napkin, and serve very hot.

CHICKEN CURRY v2

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken (1½lb, 680g), cut in pieces
  • 2 onions, cut in to eighths
  • 1 tsp Dawson curry paste
  • 3 tsp tomato paste
  • juice of 4 coconuts*
  • a little chilli sauce (optional)

Method

Fry the onions in 1 tsp of lard, add salt and fry till rather tender, then add curry paste and fry for a minute, then put in the pieces of chicken. Fry this for 5 minutes, then add enough coconut juice to cover, and lastly the tomato paste. Simmer all till tender. If potatoes are desired, add in when the chicken is half cooked. Chilli sauce is put in 5 minutes before serving.
*     The original had "4 coconut juice" which I have interpreted as "juice of 4 coconuts", but this quantity seems rather excessive.

CHICKEN CURRY WITH COCONUT

Ingredients

  • 1 large chicken (2 ½ - 3 lb, 1.2-1.5kg)
  • 2 large onions, cut in pieces
  • ½ grated coconut
  • 1 tbsp tamarind pulp
  • 20 cent size ginger, finely diced
  • 2 cloves of garlic, finely diced
  • salt, pepper
  • curry powder

Method

Cut the chicken in pieces and mix salt and curry powder to it, and let it stand for ½ hour
.
Put coconut in a sugar bag and soak in half cup of boiling water. Squeeze to extract as much of the juice as possible and set aside. Repeat, keeping the two lots of extracted coconut juice separate.
Put 1 tsp of lard in large pan and when hot fry the onions, ginger and garlic till light brown. Add the chicken and fry for, say, 10 min, stirring occasionally, then add the second lot of coconut juice.
Put the tamarind pulp in a bowl, add ¼ cup of hot water, squeeze the taste out as much as possible, drain into the chicken. If any more taste is left in the pulp, repeat the process.
When the chicken has come to the boil, reduce the heat, and simmer till tender. A quarter of an hour before serving, add the first lot of coconut juice and simmer with the lid off (otherwise the gravy will curdle).

CHICKEN PIE

FILLING

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken (2 lb , 900g)
  • 1 large onion, cut in eighths
  • 2-3 cloves
  • 1 piece cinnamon the size of 2 nibs
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 4 large potatoes, cut in halves or quarters
  • 3 eggs, cut in half lengthwise
  • 10 Chinese mushrooms
  • 1 wineglass of white wine
  • 2 tbsp lard
  • 1 bay leaf

Method

Cut the chicken into about 18 pieces.
Wash the mushrooms in warm water, put into a small bowl and cover with boiling water and leave till tender. Then cut off and discard the stems. Retain the mushroom water for later use.
Hardboil the eggs, plunge in cold water, shell and set aside. Put the lard in a fairly large pan and when very hot add the onions and fry, add salt and pepper and go on frying till light brown. Then add the chicken and fry for 5 to 10 mins, stirring till the chicken looks cooked on the outside.
Add bay leaf, cloves, cinnamon and mushroom and its water, and enough cold water to cover the chicken and simmer till tender. Half an hour before done add the potatoes cut in halves or quarters. When ready set aside till cold.
Pour into a pie dish and lay the neatly on with the yolks downwards. See that there is enough gravy is enough to cover ¾ of the contents otherwise add a little seasoned stock.

PASTRY

Ingredients

Method

Roll out the suet puff pastry to about ¾" thick. Trim the borders and cut them into 2 or 3 strips about 1½" wide for the upper edge of the pie top.
Roll out the rest of the pastry about 1" larger than the circumference of the rim of the dish. Brush the rim with cold water. Lay the large piece of the dough over the dish loosely; press lightly but firmly around the rim and with a sharp knife trim the edges neatly.
Brush a 1½" wide area around the border of the top with cold water, and place the prepared strips neatly around the top and press lightly.
The leftover pastry can be cut in diamond shapes and scored with the back of a knife to represent leaves. Moisten them with water on the other side and lay on the pie as decoration.
When this is ready cut a hole in the centre of the pie the size of a 20-cent piece for steam and make a few slits on the surface of the pastry to allow steam to escape during baking.
Bake l¼ hours or till done. Keep the oven door closed for at least half an hour for if cold air gets in the pastry may collapse.
Just before serving, pour the wine into the central hole through a funnel, then close the hole with a bunch of fresh parsley or some suitable pastry decoration and serve.

CHICKEN THEREZE

[chicken with liver and gizzard]
(Mãe)

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken with liver and gizzard
  • 1 spring onion(1)
  • 6 hard-boiled eggs

(1)     Presumably chopped

Method

Separate the hard-boiled egg yolks and mix with salad or olive oil(2).
Dice chicken and season with salt and pepper.
Heat lard in a pan and fry spring onion until well browned. Put in the chicken and fry for a while, then add a little water and boil for 10 minutes.
Before serving put in the liver and gizzard and cook for a few minutes and add the egg yolks.
(2)     Presumably the egg yolks are mashed. In other recipes that use mashed egg yolks for flavour and thickening, the egg whites are diced and used to garnish the dish.

CHICKEN WITH BAMBOO SHOOTS

Ingredients

  • ½ chicken cut in pieces
  • 3 bamboo shoots, in slices or chunks
  • 1 tsp soy sauce
  • about ¼ cup ló chiu Chinese wine
  • a 20 cent size of ginger
  • salt
  • 2 tsp lard

Method

Scrape the ginger, crush it down with a heavy knife and fry it in hot lard and when slightly brown add the chicken and fry well. Then add the soy sauce, wine, bamboo shoots, and enough water to cover. Simmer gently till all is tender.
Cut off the lower quarter of the bamboo shoot as it is tough.
I have experimented with this recipe using tinned bamboo shoots, a 3cm piece of ginger and chicken thigh fillets, adding 2 tbsp soy sauce and a few chopped spring onions. It was quite tasty. – HdA

HdA

CHICKEN WITH WALNUTS

(Author unknown)

Ingredients

  • 1 cup chicken fillet, diced
  • 1 cup walnut meat (peeled)
  • 1 tbsp cornstarch
  • 1 egg white
  • 4 tbsp stock
  • ½ tsp salt
  • fat for frying

Method

Blend the cornstarch and salt in a little water and mix thoroughly with the chicken. Fry for 1 minute in deep fat, then drain.
Fry the walnuts for 2 minutes or till light brown.
Blend the chicken meat and walnuts in 1 tablespoon oil, add seasoned stock then cook for ½ minute.
Serve hot.

CHILI CHAOCHAO Click hear sound

[Stir-fried pork with chillies]

Ingredients

  • ¼ lb (110g) pork, cut in ¼" cubes
  • 2 squares of hard taofu, cut into small cubes
  • 2 green chillies
  • ½ bunch Cantonese salt vegetable (ching choi)
  • ½ tsp preserved beans*
  • ½ tsp lard
  • salt to taste

Method

Wash the chillies, cut open, remove seeds out and cut into wide strips. Wash the ching choi well and cut into small pieces.
Heat the lard, fry the preserved beans for 2 mins, add the pork and fry for 5 mins. Just cover the meat with water and simmer till meat is rather tender. Then add the rest of the ingredients and simmer till there is hardly any gravy.

*     These are probably black soy beans (tao see in Cantonese).

CHILICOTE Click hear sound DE RABONO

[Savoury pastry with daikon (Chinese white radish)]

PASTRY

Ingredients

  • 2(?) cups rice flour
  • 2 cups boiling water
  • lard
  • ½ tsp salt

Method

Bring to the boil water, lard and salt, then add rice flour and stir until well blended. Close the lid tightly and reduce to a very low heat, cook for 10 minutes then keep covered for ¼ hour.
Banana leaves for wrapping
Banana tree leaves are very long and the leaves are very wide. Each side of the leaf is large enough to wrap two or three packets of chilicote.
Cut off the stem in the centre and wash the leaves clean one by one. Have a pan half filled with boiling water, put in the leaves and boil briefly. Remove, strain and thoroughly dry with a clean cloth.

FILLING

Ingredients

  • 680g Chinese white radish (rabono in Portuguese, or lo pak in Cantonese)
  • 220g pork
  • 5 spring onions, finely chopped
  • 4 cloves garlic
  • 56g diced raw Chinese ham (optional)

Method

Pork must be minced in a mincing machine.
Cut the Chinese radish lengthwise in thin 3" (8cm) strips.
Crush the garlic without taking off the skin. Put about 3 teaspoons of lard in a rather large pan and when the lard is very hot, put in the garlic and fry till light brown. In turn, add and fry the spring onions for two minutes then the minced pork for 5 minutes. Add salt and pepper and lastly the strips of Chinese radish. Mix this well into the pork and let it cook, stirring occasionally until all the water of the white radish has been dried up, and the mixture is just moist.
Lastly, add ham and cook for two minutes. Remove from the fire, and let it get cold.
Turn the flour paste onto a board and knean till smooth. Take out a lump of flour the size of a walnut and roll it round and smooth.
Put the flour ball on a lightly oiled small part of the board. With a very wide knife (preferably a parang – cleaver) press down the ball of flour gradually (being careful that it does not stick on the board) until it is about 1/8" (3mm) thick and about 4" (10cm) in diameter. Make it in a nice round shape, and be careful not to crack it. Put a teaspoon or so of the Chinese radish stuffing in the centre, fold in two and wrap in banana leaf as follows.
Put the chilicote at about three inches before the end of the leaf, cover the end over, give a turn and put on another chilicote and wrap another two turns. Each packet should have two chilicotes. Have the chilicotes well covered with the leaf, as otherwise it will break. Put them in layers in a sieve or colander, have a large pan with ¼ boiling water and a hollow tin in the centre to hold up the sieve 1" from the water and steam for 1-2 hours till done.

CHILICOTE Click hear sound FRITO

[Fried savoury pastry]

PASTRY

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (225g) flour
  • 3 egg yolks of egg (and if desired 1 white)
  • 1-2 tsp (10-20 ml) lard
  • Cold water with a good pinch of salt

Method

Sift the flour in a bowl, add the yolks and mix. Gradually add cold water mixed with a little salt until the paste comes to a consistency which can be kneaded. Turn on a board and knead till smooth. (Just sufficient water must be put in so that the dough will neither be too dry nor stick to the hands.)
Knead for 5 minutes, then gradually knead the lard into the paste until all is used. Test by cutting the dough into half with a sharp knife and if plenty of holes are visible, the pastry is ready. Put it aside and cover with a damp cloth until the stuffing is ready.

STUFFING

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (225g pork)
  • 1 oz (28g) orelhas de rato
  • 4 spring onions
  • salt and pepper
  • grated cheese (optional)
  • 1½ dsp (15ml) lard for frying the pork

Method

Mince the pork through a mincing machine.
Wash the spring onions and cut into small pieces.
Soak the orelhas de rato in hot or boiling water and, when they are soft, wash each piece well, taking off any parts that are very hard. Then rinse in cold water 2 or 3 times and chop fine.
Put the lard in a frying pan until it is very hot, fry the spring onions for about 1 minute then add the minced pork, fry for 5 minutes turning occasionally, add salt and pepper. Then add the finely chopped orelha de rato and stir for a minute. Lastly add enough water to cover half way this mixture and let simmer slowly, stirring now and then until there is no more gravy and it is just moist.
Remove from the fire and if desired add some grated cheese. Leave this stuffing mixture to cool fully.
In the meantime, roll out ¼ of the dough, about 14-16" (35-40cm) long and about 6" (15cm) wide. Roll out as thinly as possible, but not so thin that it may break. If it sticks a little, put just a little flour on the board.
When the dough is rolled out to the width and length desired, put in the stuffing. Take 1 tsp of the stuffing and put about the centre of the rolled paste at about 1" (2.5cm) from the end and go on putting by teaspoons all along, leaving a space between of 2". When this has been done, brush with cold water the borders of the pastry and the space between the stuffing. Carefully fold the pastry over the stuffing, making the 2 lengthwise sides meet. Press down firmly and also press the space between each stuffing. When this is securely done, take a pastry roller, dip in flour if necessary and roll out each chilicote the shape of about half moon. Tuck them neatly up and put on a lightly floured dish.
The remnant of this dough can be joined and kneaded down with the remaining dough. Finish up the remaining dough and stuffing in the way mentioned.
When this is done, do the frying. Have a large frying pan half-filled with lard and when the lard is quite hot, put in the chilicotes, a dozen or so at a time. Fry to light brown then lay on a sheet of paper in a warm place to absorb the remaining lard.
NB    Too many egg whites in the pastry will turn it rubbery and hard. Well kneaded pastry makes "good eating".

CHINESE FRIED PIGEON

Ingredients

  • 3 pigeons
  • 1 egg
  • flour
  • 1 tsp linseed
  • salt and pepper
  • lard or oil

Method

Cut each pigeon into about 12 pieces and drain out any liquid. (If the pigeons are too tough and old, first steam them or boil them whole in about ¼ cup water and let them cool.)
Season with salt and pepper, add 1 tsp flour and mix well.
Beat the egg in a large bowl, add about 2-3 tsp flour, linseed, a little salt and pepper and enough water to make a rather thick batter.
Heat a pan ¼ or ½ full of Chinese oil, dip the pieces of pigeons into the batter and drop into the hot oil and let fry till golden brown and the meat is tender. Drain on paper.

CHI YÕK CHÕK

[Pork congee]

Ingredients

  • ? lb rice
  • ? qt water
  • 2 ching choi Cantonese salt cabbage, well washed and chopped very fine
  • 5 spring onions, chopped
  • ½ tsp flour
  • 4 dsp soy sauce
  • 1 lb (450g) minced pork
  • ½ lb (220g) pork liver, sliced thin
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 1 small bunch of fresh coriander

Method

Boil the rice in water, then simmer gently till the rice is quite soft and the congee (canje) rather thick. Add half the spring onions and ching choi.
Mix the other half of the spring onions and ching choi, 2dsp of soy sauce, ½ tsp flour, salt and pepper with the minced pork. With a teaspoon, mould into small balls, drop into the canje and cook for 20 mins.
Just before serving, add the liver which will be cooked when the colour changes and it is no longer red inside. Do not boil the liver or it will turn hard.
Break a good fresh egg into each serving bowl and put 2-3 ladles of the canje on top, being careful not to break the egg. (With hot canje the egg will be cooked.
Serve with a spring of Chinese celery in each bowl. A few drops of chi ma yao can be added as well. Serve with yau chau kwai (Chinese deep-fried pastry that is readily obtainable from Chinese grocers).

CHOCO CHAOCHAO

[Stir-fried squid]

Ingredients

  • 4 fresh squid
  • ¼ lb (110g) celery
  • 1 oz (28g) orelha de rato
  • ½ tsp flour
  • 1 dsp soy sauce
  • ginger the size of a 20-cent piece, chopped very fine
  • 2 spring onions, cut in ½" pieces
  • salt and pepper

Method

Take the bone out of the squid and wash the meat till quite white. With a sharp knife, cut ¼ way through the flesh along the length of the squid, then cut into slices about ½" wide across. Mix the ginger, flour and soy sauce with the squid pieces and set aside. Soak the orelha de rato in boiling water, and wash well and cut into halves.
Take the leaves off the celery, wash the rest well and cut in 1"lengths. Fry the salt and spring onions in 3 dsp of hot lard.
Add celery and orelha de rato, put just a little water and let it boil for 2 mins, then add the squid and stir same well. If there is no gravy at all add a little water. Cook the squid for no more than a few minutes till it whitens, because overcooking makes it tough.

CHOURIÇO DE SUTATE

[Soy sauce sausages]

CASING

 

For historical interest, Guilly's delightful description of the processing of the casing is reproduced verbatim. Today in Western countries one would simply get the sausage casing from a friendly butcher.

Buy one pig's casing (tripe) as the remainder can be kept for other occasions. Take the casing by the end, put on a piece of board and with the border of a bowl carefully scrape down dirt till it comes out by the other end. If it is too long, cut it into three. Rinse the water, putting the end into the tap and let the water run through. When all the dirt is out, take a chopstick, take the casing by the edge, fold about 1-2 inches of the board right in and with a stick push this end right through until you come to the other end. Get a good hold of the first end and turn the skin inside out. You will succeed with a little practice. When the casing is turned inside out, again take a bowl or cup, and do the soaping, being careful not to be too rough, as the skin might break. Go through this process 2-3 times until it is quite clean and the skin is evenly thin. Remove all the water from it, put a teaspoonful of salt in it and squeeze all the remainder of the water, then rinse thoroughly. This is ready for the filling. Use a tin tube with the upper part of the shape of more or less a bowl, put the tube into the casing and fill the meat in. When all these are done tie the ends, then divide into sections 5 inches long and tie. Between every four sausages have the string fold in 2 tied, so as to be able to hang up. When this is done, dip the bunch of sausages in hot water for half a minute to take off all the salty taste on the outside. Hang them out on a bamboo, keeping them apart, so as to get the full sun. Prick each one 5-6 times with a pin to take out the air, and sun up. See that the day is good for making sausages, as sausages must have a good sunning the first day. This will be ready after 2 days of sunning. What is left over of the casing wash off all the sutate that may be left there, squeeze dry, put in a small bowl, add half a hand of salt and squeeze for the salt to get well in. Then dry in the sun without taking out the salt. When next using take the amount of casing you need, soak in tepid water, squeeze off the salt and if not soft enough put more tepid water and soak. It takes 5-10 minutes. If the weather is bad or doubtful after cutting the meat do not put in the casing. Keep the meat mixed with the ingredients in a cool place, stirring with a wooden spoon two times a day. This can be kept for two or three days. Be careful not to put in casing when there is not enough sun, as the sausages will turn sour, if the weather is warm, besides worms might appear.

Ingredients

  • 1.3kg pork (after removing skin, bones and gristle)
  • 1½ tbsp salt (or less to taste)
  • 1½ tbsp pepper (or less to taste)
  • ½ cup Japanese soy sauce, or ¼ cup Chinese soy sauce (Japanese preferred)
  • 2 tbsp Chinese wine (Fan Chow)
  • 1 tsp sugar

Method

Only prepare sausages on a sunny day.
Dice pork into 3mm cubes, add the other ingredients and mix thoroughly.
Insert the end of a large funnel into the sausage casing and stuff in the meat. Tie off the ends and twist the casing to produce 5in (13cm) sausages. Tie off the sausages in groups of 4.
Dip sausages in hot water for 30 sec and prick each sausage 5-6 times to let the air out.
Hang the strings of sausages in the sun for two days (it is particularly important that the first day be sunny).

CHOURIÇO PORTUGUÉS

[Portuguese sausage]
(Avó F.*)

Ingredients

  • 10 catties (6kg) pork (preferably leg pork) cut in 3mm cubes
  • 6 soup spoons colorau doce (sweet paprika powder)
  • 6 taels (230g) salt
  • 6 taels (230g) salitre (saltpeter)
  • 1 whole garlic
  • bay leaves and cloves
  • white wine to cover the meat

Method

Remove the skin, bones and gristle from the pork, leaving just the meat and fat.
Add all the other ingredients (except the wine), mix well and lastly just enough white wine to cover the meat. Keep in a cool place for a few days, stirring once or twice a day.
Remove the bay leaves and cloves and stuff the sausages.

*     This person is perhaps Guilly's paternal grandmother, Ana Teresa Brandão.

CHOURIÇO VINHO D'ALHO Click hear sound

[Sausage with wine and garlic]

Ingredients

  • 1½ lb (680g) pork cut up
  • 1 level tbsp cummin powder
  • 1 level tsp pepper
  • 1 tbsp salt
  • ¾ of a whole garlic
  • 5 tbsp coliang
  • ½ tbsp turmeric
  • ½ level tsp cayenne pepper or about 20 red hot chillies
  • 4 tbsp Cantonese vinegar

Method

Cut the pork, chop garlic very fine. Mix all other ingredients together, add to the meat and mix together. Keep for 2 days, stirring twice each day, then fill in casing, prick and expose to the sun as for chouriço de sutate.

CHUTNEY DE PEIXE CABUZ

[Fish chutney]

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) dried salted peixe cabuz or salt cod*
  • about ¼ cup of coconut juice
  • 2 oz (56g) cebola seca
  • ½ tsp turmeric
  • ¾ lb lard

Method

Wash the fish and soak in cold water overnight if too salty. Remove the skin and every piece of bone. Pound little portions with a mortar and pestle till it looks very hairy and fine.
Grate the coconut, soak in a little water and squeeze to extract about ¼ cup of its thickest juice. Soak the fish flake into this juice for a while.
Peel the cebola seca and cut in thin strips lengthwise. Cook the cebola seca in very hot lard until it is almost golden brown; add turmeric and fry for a minute. Then put in the mixture of the fish and coconut juice and let it boil, stirring occasionally until all the coconut juice has evaporated and only the lard shows.
Reduce the heat to very low and cook the fish flake until it is crispy and golden brown, stirring occasionally to avoid burning. Drain every bit of lard out of the pan and lay the fish flake on paper to drain out the last of the fat.

*     Salted peixe cabuz is sold in Cantonese shops by the ounce. They are opened flat out and are about 2" wide. Salted cod (bacalhau) can be purchased from any grocer or retail dealer. – Guilly

COZIDO* v3 Click hear sound

[Hotpot (literally, "cooked")]

MAIN DISH

Ingredients(1)

  • 1 lb(450g) beef, preferably in one piece
  • 1 lb (450g) corned beef
  • 1 large pig's trotter
  • 1 lb nervo
  • 1 large chicken
  • If a richer cozido is wanted, add 1 lb (450g) pork chop, 1 ham trotter, chouriço, ham, etc
  • 1 large cabbage, cut in 4
  • 6 carrots
  • 4 Chinese white radish
  • 1 lb (450g) kai lan choy (Chinese broccoli)
  • 3 large onions
  • ½ taro
  • about 20 chestnuts
  • 3 sweet potatoes
  • Cabbage, carrots and white radish are essential; some of the other vegetables can be omitted if out of season.

Method

Wash the nervo and boil it the day before till quite tender. Scrape the ham trotter and boil with a quart (1.2l) of water together with the corned beef. (This is because salt meat, if cooked with white meat, tends to turn the white meat an unattractive red colour.) The rest of the meat can be simmered in a large pot with 3-4 qt (3.6-4.8l) water and a pinch of salt till tender.
Wash and cut the cabbage, and simmer till tender. Wash kai lan choy and tie in a bunch.
Peel taro, carrots and white radish and wash.
Peel, chestnuts, potatoes and onions and add to the meat when the meat is ¾ tender. Add also the onions, the previously boiled nervo and its stock.
10 minutes before serving, when the meat and vegetables are quite tender, add a piece of chouriço and its oil and let cook for just a little while.
Just before serving, remove the chicken and other meat, then add the boiled ham trotter and corned beef to the contents in the pot. Bring the stock, vegetables and salt meat in the pot to the boil. Any stock from boiling the salt meat should not be put in until this last boiling.
Two large dishes are needed. Cut the beef, corned beef and pork chop in neat, thin slices, and lay them neatly on the dish. The chicken, etc, are cut in good-sized pieces and arrayed neatly on the same dish.
The other dish is for vegetables. Drain every bit of liquid from the vegetables and arrange them neatly and appetizingly on the dish. They can be cut into convenient sizes if desired.
Drain the soup in the pot into a soup tureen.
Serve with rice. A soup plate is usually needed for the rice as one's appetite is considerably increased when such a wonderful course is presented at table. Have a good nap after tiffin to complete the joy.
*     This Portuguese dish bears some resemblance to the French pot au feu and to New England hot pot.

RELISH

Ingredients

  • 4 tbsp balichão
  • 6-8 tbsp Chinese white vinegar
  • ½ lemon thinly sliced and with each slice cut in twelve

Method

Mix these ingredients in an attractive bowl and serve with the cozido.

CRIA CRIA v1

[Stuffed dumplings (the origin of the name is obscure)]

Ingredients

  • 1 cup farinha arroz (rice flour)
  • 1 cup boiling water
  • 2 egg yolks
  • 110g cold porco salmourado (pickled pork with turmeric) preferably rather fat
  • 56g Chinese ham (cooked)
  • 3 tsp grated cheese
  • 3 chopped spring onions (optional)
  • salt to taste
  • fat for deep frying

Method

Boil water in a small pan, add the flour and stir well until all the flour has taken in the water. Remove from the fire, close the lid tightly and put on the side of the stove.
In the meantime chop up the meats together very finely (do not mince), cut the spring onions and grate the cheese. Turn the cooked flour on a board, add the yolks and knead.
Lastly, add the meat and the other ingredients and knead all together until quite smooth.
Then take in a little lump, the size of a large plum. Roll it round on the board, then roll lengthwise to the thickness of a thin sausage. Join the two ends together, press firmly. Do the same with the rest of the dough.
The circumference must be like a child's bangle. Heat half a pan of lard, and fry the rings in moderate heat, so that the inside may be cooked.
Other cold meats such as vaca estufada, corned beef, porco pó de bolacha, etc, can also be used.

CRIA CRIA v2

[Stuffed dumplings (a better recipe)]

Ingredients

  • 2 cups water
  • 1 dsp lard
  • 2½ cups rice flour
  • 5-6 egg yolks
  • 450g cold meat – porco salmourado, porco vinho d'alho, Chinese ham, porco pó de bolacha, vaca estufada, vaca salgada (corned beef), or any tasty cold meat
  • 8tsp grated cheese
  • 10 spring onions, finely chopped
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • Fat for deep frying

Method

Bring to the boil water and lard and then pour in the sifted flour. Stir till well mixed, remove from the fire, close the lid tightly and let it on the side of the stove.
In the meantime, cut up the assorted cold meat in very small squares. (Do not use the mincing machine, as this will make the meat too fine.)
Turn the half cooked flour on a board, let it cool a little, knead down, adding the egg yolks, one at a time. When the yolks are well mixed in, knead in the rest of the ingredients, until all is well blended.
Roll out and fry in the same way as the previous recipe.
Do not use roast beef or roast mutton for "cria cria" as they will not taste so good. This is a genuine Macanese speciality, so use the cold meat specified. Eat once, and you will want again.
 D 

DAIKON PICKLE

Ingredients

  • 6 large tender daikon (Chinese white radish)
  • 2 cups white vinegar
  • 2 lb (900g) sugar
  • 3 tsp turmeric
  • 3 tbsp salt

Method

Peel, wash and drain the white radish. Cut into round pieces 2" (5cm) long, then lengthwise into 6 or 8 pieces. Put in a large bowl, add salt and stir well. Keep for 12 hours, stirring occasionally so that the salt can draw out all the water from the white radish. After half a day drain the white radish well in a colander. Put in jars and cover with prepared vinegar* (cold). The vinegar may be reused later.

*     The recipe for the vinegar was not given, but probably would have involved heating and dissolving sugar and salt.– HdA

DIABO v5 Click hear sound

[Rich spicy stew (literally "devil", so named probably because it is so hot]

Ingredients

  • 1 roast chicken (2 lb, 900g)
  • 1 lb (450g) roast leg of mutton
  • 1 lb (450g) vaca estufada or bacon
  • 2 lb (900g) suckling pig or 1 lb (450g) siu yok
  • 3 large onions, cut in eighths
  • 1 small tin tomato paste
  • ¼ cup Portuguese olive oil
  • ¼ cup good table sauce
  • ¼ cup vinho branco
  • ¼ lb (110g) mixed English pickles or 15 cebola mato (Cantonese kiu tao) tipped and cut lengthwise in half
  • 2 tsp white vinegar
  • a little salt and pepper
  • 2 tsp powdered mustard

Method

Cut the cold meat in rather big pieces.
Fry onions in 2 dsp lard, season with a little salt and pepper and when well fried, add all the cold meats except the roast pork. Fry for 10 mins, stirring occasionally, then add water to cover and let simmer for 10 mins. Add the tin of tomatoes, mix well and go on simmering.
In the meantime put the mustard in a bowl and mix the vinegar in gradually, then add olive oil, wine, and sauce and mix together. 10 minutes before the meat is done, add this liquid mixture and pickles and simmer for just a little while and serve.
Potatoes (halved or quartered) can also be used for this dish. Add to the meat ½ hour before serving. (In hot weather potatoes are not used as they do not keep long.)
This dish improves after cooking; in very cold weather it can be kept for 3-4 days.

DIABO v6 Click hear sound

[Rich spicy stew (literally "devil", so named probably because it is so hot]
(Author unknown)

Ingredients

  • 1 6-1b (2.7kg) roast chicken
  • 2 lb (900g) roast mutton
  • 3 lb (1.3kg) roast beef or vaca estufada
  • 2 lb (900g) roast suckling pig or 2 lbs siu yôk (Chinese roast pork)
  • 3 large onions, cut in eighths
  • 1 small tin tomato paste
  • ¼ cup Worcestershire Sauce (preferably Lee and Perrins)
  • ¼ cup white wine or sherry or Chinese wine
  • ¼ lbs or more mixed pickles or mustard pickles
  • 15 pickled-Cantonese garlic, with the ends trimmed off, and cut in half
  • 2 tsp Chinese white vinegar
  • 2 tsp mustard powder
  • olive oil
  • 5 eggs, separated
  • 2 dsp lard

Method

Roast the meats, let them cool and cut into about 3" pieces. Retain the juices from the roasts.
Fry onions well in lard, season with a little salt and pepper, add the cold meats but not the suckling pig or siu yôk. Fry for 10 minutes, stirring occasionally, then add the juices from the roasts and just enough water to cover the meat, cover simmer for 10 minutes. Add the tomato paste, mix well and go on simmering.
In the meantime put the mustard in a bowl and mix the vinegar gradually in, then add olive oil, wine and sauce and blend them well together. When the meat in the pan is tender, add the suckling pig cut in pieces and cook for 10 minutes. Ten minutes before serving, add the above liquid mixture and pickles and simmer for just a while.
Put raw egg yolks in a bowl and mix with about ¼ cup of cold water. Just before serving, turn off the fire, pour the egg mixture into the diabo and stir into the gravy to thicken.
Steam the egg whites in a little bowl until quite firm; chop into very small pieces. Turn the Diabo on to a large dish and sprinkle the egg whites evenly over and serve.
If desired, potatoes can be added. Boil 2 doz. potatoes and when quite cold out in quarters and add to the Diabo 10 minutes before serving. In summer it is advisable to omit potatoes as they don't keep long.
This dish in very cold weather can be kept for 3 or 4 days – it tastes better. If sweetish diabo is preferred, add some sugar.

DICED GAME PIE

PIE

Ingredients

  • 2 hen pheasants
  • 1 hare
  • 2 dsp Worcestershire sauce (Lea & Perrin)
  • 1 level dsp allspice
  • 3 dsp wine
  • a dash of cayenne pepper
  • 2 tsp chopped parsley
  • ¼ lb (110g)sliced bacon, cut in ½" pieces

Method

Take all the meat from the pheasant and hare and keep all the bones and gristle for stock. Dice all the, keeping the pheasant and hare meat separate. Add half the Worcestershire sauce, allspice, cayenne pepper and wine to the pheasant and half to the hare.
Put half the hare pieces in a round cake tin for the first layer, level it and sprinkle some the chopped parsley all over. Then add a layer of the bacon then a layer using half the pheasant. Repeat the process to use up all the meat.
Bake in a very slow oven till cooked ½ hour(1).

JELLY

Ingredients

  • bones of the pheasants and hare
  • 2 bay leaves
  • 6 peppercorns
  • 1 onion
  • 2 carrots
  • celery (optional)
  • salt
  • sheets of French leaf gelatine
  • white wine or good sherry
  • sauce(2) to taste

Method

Put all the bones, etc. in a pan with 1 quart of water, adding salt, peppercorns, and bay leaf, onion and carrots. Add a sprig of parsley if desired and a little celery and sauce to taste. Simmer for 1-2 hrs. Chop the bones, etc., very small (this gives a better soup). When this is ready, strain the stock through a fine sieve and let it get quite cold. Remove every bit of the fat from the surface of the stock.
Clarifying
To clarify the stock, take an egg, break it into the pan and beat it lightly. Wash the shell, remove the inside skin, crush the shell into small pieces, add to the egg and toss all into the stock.
Heat while stirring until it is almost at the boil; stop stirring (or it will not be quite clear), bring to the boil on low heat and simmer for 5 minutes. Carefully remove the egg and shells and strain gently through a clean thin bag (let it run gently and do not squeeze).
Add wine to taste and more salt if needed.
Serving
Remove the baked meat from the oven, strain the meat juice in a bowl, remove all fat and add this to the jelly liquid. Carefully turn the meat on to a big plate. Wash the tin mould to remove all grease, wipe dry and put back the baked meat back in the mould.
Cool down the jelly a little and pour into the mould. Leave in a cold place till quite set.
To serve, dip in warm water for ½ min and shake out on a plate.
(1)     This seems to be a misprint: more likely it should read 1-2 hr.
(2)     The type of sauce was not specified; it is probably Worcestershire. – HdA

DUCK OR PORK WITH PINEAPPLE

Ingredients

  • 1 duck or 1 lb (450g) pork
  • 1 tbsp lard
  • 1 pineapple with skin removed and cut into pieces
  • I tbsp balichão
  • 2 spring onions, chopped
  • jagra to taste

Method

Cut tne duck or pork into pieces.
Heat lard, fry the spring onions and balichão for five minutes, add meat and fry well.
Add pineapple and enough water (about 1 cup), boil, add jagra and simmer till all is tender.

DUCK WITH PRUNES

Ingredients

  • 1 large fat duck, goose or chicken
  • ½ lb (220g)prunes
  • 1 lb (450g) potatoes, peeled and washed (optional)
  • salt and pepper

Method

Wash and soak the prunes overnight and drain.
Wash the duck well, drain and season the inside and outside well with salt and pepper. Brush the surface with lard or cover the top with a large piece of chicken fat. Lay on a baking pan and put the potatoes and prunes with the duck. Roast at high temperature till the duck has taken some colour, reduce the temperature and roast slowly till done.
Serve the duck whole on a dish with the prunes and potatoes around.

DUCK WITH TARO

Ingredients

  • l duck
  • 1 tbsp tai chong (a type of pastry prepared from dark brown beans)
  • 2 slices ginger
  • 1 oz (28g) mushrooms
  • 1 oz (28g) lirio (dried lilies)
  • ½ taro
  • 2 spring onions, tied in a knot
  • 1 tbsp lard

Method

Wash the mushrooms, soak in a little hot water and discard the stems. Process the lirio in the same way.
Heat lard and fry the ginger for 1 minute then add tai chiong and fry for a little while. Put the duck in whole or cut in pieces and fry for about 5 to 10 minutes. Add 1 to 1½ cups water, and when it comes to the boil, add the mushrooms, lirio, and spring onions, reduce the heat and simmer.
The taro can covered in water and boiled until tender (or cut into pieces and simmered with the meat, in which case more water should be added to the fried duck).
When ready bring out the taro cut in halves lengthwise then in slices 1" thick and put neatly on the serving dish. Cut up the duck and lay over the taro. Pour the gravy and the rest of the ingredients over the duck and serve.
 E 

ESCABECHE

[Fish chutney]

Ingredients

  • 1 large fish, cut in 8 good slices*
  • ¼ cup good white vinegar
  • salt to taste
  • 3-4 cloves of garlic
  • colorau doce (sweet paprika) (this can be omitted if unavailable)
  • 3-4 bay leaves
  • 1 sprig parsley

Method

Fry the sliced fish and season with salt and pepper till golden brown and crispy and take out. Take the oil and lard in which the fish was fried, pour on a bowl and add the vinegar, crushed garlics, colorau, bay leaves, and parsley and stir well. Place the fish in layers on a flat bowl or white bottle, and pour the liquid over to cover. When quite cold close tightly and keep in a cold place for 2-3 days.

*     Presumably in steaks. - HdA

ESMARGAL v1

[Fish chutney]

Ingredients

  • 1 bottle vinegar
  • 1 tsp cummin powder
  • 3 oz (84g) tamarind
  • 1 oz chopped garlic
  • 2 chillies cut up
  • 1 lb (450g) salted sardines or peixe serra
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • ½ tsp pepper
  • 3 oz chopped fresh ginger

Method

Mix all the ingredients together, put the pieces of fish in a jar in layers covering each layer well with the ingredients. Close the jar and keep in a cool place for two weeks.

ESMARGAL v2

[Fish chutney]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 3 oz (84g) tamarind
  • 2 oz (56g) cebola seco, chopped very fine
  • 1 tsp good curry powder if desired
  • 1 tsp cummin
  • 3 oz (84g) garlic, peeled and chopped very fine
  • 1 tsp pepper
  • 3 oz (84g) fresh ginger, chopped very fine
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • 28 very red and hot dried chillies
  • ¾ - 1 pint (450-600ml) best quality white Cantonese vinegar
  • 1 lb (450g) peixe cabuz (or ideally, peixe serra if it can be obtained) after washing and trimming

Method

Soak the tamarind in a little of the vinegar, squeeze well to extract all the taste and strain.
Mix well the garlic, cebola seco, ginger, dried spices tamarind liquid and the remainder of the vinegar.
Wash the peixe cabuz in hot water, remove every bit of scale, cut the fish in 1" lengths, and add to the mixture.
Bottle tightly and let mature for a month or so.
 F 

FARTES v2

[Christmas sweets]
A traditional sweet served at Christmas time, denoting the pillow of the Christ child (almofada do menino Jesus)

FILLING

Ingredients

  • 1 grated coconut
  • 6 oz (170g) pine nuts
  • 6 oz (170g) biscuit crumbs
  • 11 oz (300g) sugar
  • 1 dsp almonds, roasted and ground
  • ½ tsp ground cloves
  • 1 tbsp butter

Method

Prepare the filling the day beforehand.
Dissolve the sugar in a little water and boil to thicken until drops fall off a spoon like little pearls. Add the coconut and the other ingredients except the cloves which should be added only at the end.
Chill and make into rolls.

PASTRY

Ingredients

  • 1 catty (610g) wheat flour
  • 6 oz (170 g) butter
  • 1 tbsp lard
  • 6 oz (170g) sugar
  • 8 egg yolks
  • 3 egg whites
  • ½ tsp baking powder

Method

Boil the butter and lard. Sift in the flour mixed with the baking powder. Add the sugar followed by the egg yolks and whites and work them through the dough.
Roll the dough out lengthwise, cut into 10cm x 15cm rectangular pieces and wrap around little dabs of the filling to resemble tiny pillows.

FATIAS DE OVOS Click hear sound

[Egg slices]

Ingredients

  • 16 egg yolks
  • 1 cup grated coconut
  • ½ cup white and black raisins
  • 11 oz (300g) sugar

Method

Beat the yolks for about 45 minutes. Grease a tall mould with butter and put in the beaten yolks and cook in a double boiler (bain-Marie) for half an hour.
It will collapse when taken off the heat but do not worry. Cool and tip from the mould onto a wire frame.
Dissolve the sugar in a little water and boil to thicken the syrup until pearl-like drops fall from a spoon. Remove from the fire and carefully drizzle the syrup over the cooked eggs until well soaked in, and put onto a glass plate.
Add the grated coconut and the raisins to the rest of the syrup, bring to the boil, and pour over the cooked eggs. Slice and serve.

FISH ROLLS

(Author unknown)

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) fish fillet
  • 2 tbsp wine
  • ½ cup stock
  • 4 tbsp cornstarch
  • 6 green peppers (cut in cubes)
  • 1 lb (450g) bamboo shoots (cut in thin strips)
  • 2 oz (56g) ham (cut in thin strips)
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 tsp sugar (optional)

Method

Cut the fish fillet into very thin slices, mix with salt and wine and let stand for 1 hour.
Roll up a few pieces of ham and bamboo shoot in each slice of fish. Sift cornstarch over the rolls and fry in fat with 1 tsp sugar (optional).
Cut the green peppers into cubes. Saute for a few minutes in 3 tbsp oil, combine with the fish rolls. Add stock and seasoning, cover and cook or 10 minutes and serve.

FRESH SAUSAGES

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) beef
  • 3 oz (85g), fat part of pork (not lard)
  • about 1 tsp nutmeg
  • about 1 oz (28g) stale bread
  • 1 tsp chopped parsley (optional)
  • salt and pepper
  • about 2 yards (2m) of sausage casing

Method

Soak the bread in water till soft, then squeeze the water out well.
Mince the beef and pork fat together then add grated nutmeg, chopped parsley, salt and pepper. Mix all thoroughly.
Wash the casing well and fill with the meat mixture very loosely (say, ½ full), as otherwise the meat and bread will expand when boiled and the skin will burst. Divide in sections and tie a little string between each. Prick the sausages well with a pin, roll them round the pan so as to have rather a flat surface. Half cover with water and boil for 15 mins till all the water is dried up and fat comes out. Pour this fat into a frying pan (if there is no fat any clean lard will do).
Separate the sausages with a sharp knife, remove all the strings and fry the sausages until light brown. Serve with mashed potatoes.

FRIED FISH

Ingredients

Various fish will do for this purpose.

Method

Wash the fish well and cut into about ½" slices. Dry with a cloth, season well with salt and fry in deep hot lard till golden in colour.

FURUSO*

[Left-overs (the origin of the name, possibly Japanese, is obscure)]

Ingredients

  • Cold meat cut in pieces including leitão (suckling pig)
  • Mint chopped fine
  • Grated cheese
  • Pickled ginger
  • Pickled onions
  • A good portion of spring onions cut small
  • A few chillies
  • Dark soy sauce
  • Vinegar
  • Wine
  • Olives
  • Mustard

Method

Have a little fat in the pan and when quite hot add the spring onions, pickled onions, pickled ginger, chillies and olives and fry for a few minutes.
Add the cold meat, cover with cold water, bring to the boil and simmer. When the meat is quite tender and gravy tasty, add the mustard, dark soy sauce, vinegar, wine and olives.

*      The quantities and directions are imprecise and there are errors in the typed version of this recipe.

 G 

GALINHA CABIDELA

[Jugged chicken – literally, chicken giblets]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 large live chicken
  • 2 lb (900g) rather fat pork with skin
  • 2 tsp Chinese white vinegar
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • ¾ tsp coriander powder
  • 4 spring onions, chopped
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 2 dsp lard
  • 3 tbsp water

Method

Put the vinegar and water in a bowl, kill the chicken and let the blood run into the vinegar. (By so doing the blood will not curdle, but of course the colour will turn dark.) Put aside.
Cut the chicken into pieces and pork into 1-in pieces together with the skin and fat and put aside.
Heat lard in a pan and when hot add the spring onions, fry for a minute, then add the coriander powder and turmeric, stir for a few seconds not to burn, then add 2 tsp water and let cook for a minute. When this is done, add the blood, and fry together for 3 minutes, stirring all the while not to burn, then add the chicken and pork, salt and pepper, enough water to cover and simmer till the chicken and pork are quite tender. The gravy should be of a rather thick consistency.

GALINHA CHAU CHAU

[Stir-fried chicken]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken (1½lb, 680g) cut into pieces
  • 3 spring onions, chopped
  • ginger the size of 20cents
  • about ½ tsp turmeric
  • ½ tsp vinegar
  • 1 tsp coliang chow Chinese wine if desired
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 1 tsp lard

Method

Scrape the ginger skin off and cut into very thin long strips. Put the lard in the pan and when it is hot add ginger and spring onions and fry till light brown, then add the turmeric and fry for 1 minute.
Add vinegar, followed immeidately by the pieces of chicken, salt and a dash of pepper. Fry for about five mins, stirring occasionally then add about ¾ cup of water and simmer.
When done add wine.

GALINHA DE TERESA

[Chicken in liver sauce]

Ingredients

  • 1 medium-sized tender chicken with liver
  • 1 onion, cut into eighths
  • 3 egg yolks beaten for a couple of minutes
  • 1 dsp olive oil
  • 2 tsp lard
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Cut the chicken in rather large pieces and season with salt and pepper.
Bring to high heat lard in a pan and fry onions till tender and light brown. Then add the chicken and fry for a few minutes. Add one cup of water and let it simmer. Add a little more water if necessary.
Chop the raw chicken liver very fine and when the chicken is ready, put in the liver and boil for five minutes and then put in the yolks.
Just before serving add the olive oil.

GALINHA ENSOPADA

[Chicken with cheese and olives]

Ingredients

  • 1 large chicken cut in pieces
  • 1 tsp lard
  • about ¼ tsp turmeric
  • about ¼ tsp coriander powder
  • 1 tbsp olive oil
  • 5 cloves garlic, smashed
  • vinegar
  • slices of bread, fried
  • grated cheese
  • olives

Method

Heat lard and fry the smashed garlic till brown. Remove the garlic and to the lard add coriander powder, turmeric and pepper, a few drops of vinegar and a dsp of water so as not to burn. Fry for a couple of minutes then add the chicken cut in pieces and fry for 5 minutes.
Add water enough to cover, and let simmer until tender.
Before serving, add olive oil, bring to the boil and turn on to the dish on top of slices of fried bread. Garnish with grated cheese and whole olives.
Ensure that there is at least a cupful of gravy.

GALINHA EXCELENTE

[Excellent soy chicken]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 2 spring chickens
  • 3 cloves of garlic
  • ginger the size of 20 cents
  • 2 spring onions tied up
  • About ¼ cup ló chiu soy sauce
  • 1 small piece of jagra
  • 2 dsp soy sauce

Method

Cut the chicken into halves, chopped finely the garlic, ginger and spring onions and rub these well into the chicken together with salt and pepper.
Put all in a bowl and soak in ló chiu soy sauce for a couple of hours. The bring out the chicken from the marinade and fry in 2 dsp of very hot lard till golden brown, then add the gravy,. a little water and simmer till tender. Thicken the gravy with a little flour mixed with water.

GALINHA GRELHADA v1

[Grilled chicken – actually, fried]

Ingredients

  • 2 spring chickens
  • ¼ tsp soy sauce
  • salt and pepper

Method

Cut the chickens into halves, season well with salt and pepper, and if desired a little soy sauce. Put aside for an hour or so. Fry in 1 dsp lard till golden in colour. Then add about ¼ cup water and simmer very gently.

GALINHA GRELHADA v2

[Grilled chicken – actually, boiled and fried]
(Mãe)

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken
  • turmeric powder
  • vinegar
  • garlic, chopped
  • salt
  • pepper

Method

Open* and flatten the chicken and rub it with salt, pepper, turmeric and chopped garlic.
Sprinkle the chicken with a little vinegar to soften it. Put it in a pan and boil until it is soft, then fry it in hot lard.
Serve with potato chips and fried onions.

*     Presumably by cutting through the spine and opening it out. – HdA

GALINHA MÕLHO Click hear sound

[Chicken with liver and gizzards]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 spring chicken (about 680g)
  • 8 mushrooms
  • 2 cloves of garlic
  • 1 small piece cinnamon, size of a nib (1cm)
  • 2 spring onions, tied in a loop
  • 1 piece of brown sugar
  • ¼ cup Chinese wine ló chiu
  • ¼ cup water
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 1-1½ tsp soy sauce
  • lard for frying

Method

Soak the mushrooms in boiling water; remove the mushrooms and keep the water. Cut the raw chicken liver, gizzard and mushrooms into thin strips.
Prepare the chicken by twisting the wing backward and piercing the bones of the legs into the skin near the lower part of the breast. Season with salt and pepper.
Bring to a high temperature 2 tsp of lard in a pan, and brown the chicken all over. Remove the chicken and in the same pan fry the mushrooms, chicken liver and gizzard.
When this is done return the chicken to the pan and add Chinese wine, cloves, cinnamon, spring onions, brown sugar, soy sauce and water, and also the little water of the soaked mushrooms.
Simmer until tender. Before serving, thicken the gravy slightly with a little flour mixed in water. Serve the trimmings over the whole chicken.

GALINHA MÕLHO BRANCO Click hear sound

[Chicken in white sauce]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken 2 lbs (900g)
  • ¼ lb (110g) cooked ham
  • 1 cup milk
  • 2 tsp flour for the sauce
  • 1-2 tsp butter
  • 2 hard-boiled eggs
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Steam or boil the whole chicken.
Boiling: Boil the chicken in a little water and salt till tender.
Steaming: If you steam, no water is required. Season the chicken with salt and pepper all over, put it in an uncovered bowl with the liver, heart and gizzard. Half fill a saucepan with boiling water and position a hollow tin at the bottom to support the bowl. Cover the saucepan and steam until the chicken is tender. (Be careful that the water does not overboil and get into the bowl.)
When done, prepare the sauce. Mix the flour with a little water to make a smooth paste. Boil the milk and the juices from the bowl with a pinch of salt and butter and when they come to the boil add the flour paste gradually, stirring well until the mixture is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon. Do not make it too thick as it will be lumpy and when cool it may be too thick for a gravy, nor too thin. Boil for about 2 minutes and put aside.
Chop the liver, gizzard, heart and ham very fine.
Separate the whites from the yolks of the hard-boiled eggs. Chop the whites very fine. Pass the yolks through a wire sieve so that they become light and floury.
Place the chicken on a dish and pour the white sauce over all its surface, covering every part of the meat. Decorate with alternate stripes of chopped egg whites, liver, ham, egg yolks and serve.

GALINHA MÕLHO DE PERDIZ Click hear sound

[Chicken in liver sauce – literally, with partridge sauce]

Ingredients

  • 1 large roasting chicken
  • 10 chicken livers
  • 10 egg yolks
  • about 4 cups of olive oil
  • 1 whole garlic

Method

Peel and thinly slice the garlic and soak overnight in white vinegar. Separate the garlic and vinegar.
Boil the liver with a little water, salt and pepper until soft, then mince through a mincing machine.
Roast the chicken till tender and of a nice colour.
Boil the eggs, then remove the whites and mash the yolks. Add the vinegar gradually, then the oil, to make a very fine paste,and lastly, add the finely minced liver. The consistency must neither be too thin nor too thick, but just right to be able to set.
Cut the roast chicken to a nice sized pieces and cover each piece with a liver coating on the surface and serve.

GALINHA TÉMPRA DE PASTEL

[Chicken pie filling]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 chicken (1½ lb, 680g) cut in pieces
  • 8 mushrooms
  • 2 cloves of garlic
  • 1 small piece cinnamon
  • ½ tsp soy sauce
  • 3 potatoes, peeled and cut in halves
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 2 onions cut in eighths

Method

Wash the mushrooms well and soak in a little boiling water. Take out the mushrooms and retain the water.
Put a teaspoonful of lard in a pan, and when hot, add salt and pepper and chicken and fry for 5 minutes, then add the mushrooms, garlic, cinnamon, soy sauce and enough water to cover.
When the chicken is half done, add the potatoes, then simmer till all is tender. The water of the mushrooms can be added when putting in the other ingredients. A teaspoon of white wine makes a big improvement.
This dish can be used for pie stuffing or served with rice.

GAME PIE v1

[More accurately, game in aspic]

Ingredients

  • 1 pheasant
  • l-2 lb (450-900g) venison meat in one piece
  • ordinary cooking sherry
  • 2 bay leaves
  • 8 peppercorns
  • 1 tsp all-spice
  • ¼ lb (110g) bacon if desired
  • 2 stalks celery
  • 1 large carrot
  • 1 large onion
  • 2 egg whites and shell
  • 2 hardboiled eggs (for decoration)
  • 2 tbsp pears, carrots, green olives, or any suitable decoration

Method

Wash pheasant clean slit at the back, and press it flat. Wash venison meat and leave whole. Lay pheasant in with breast downward in a fairly large pot and place the venison also as close as possible to the bottom of the pot. Sprinkle all-spice all over, add bay leaves, peppercorn, carrots, onion and salt. Pour enough cooking sherry to about half cover the meat. Put pot in a low fire and let simmer till quite tender.
Put pot aside till contents are quite cold, so that the juices can get into the meat to give moisture and taste. When cold remove all the skin, bones and any gristle from the pheasant. Also remove any gristle from the venison. Break up or slice these meats
.
Drain the liquid from the pot, and pour just a little of it on the prepared meat. Leave the rest of the liquid aside for later.
Chop up the bones and skin very small, put in a pot and add 1½ quart (1.5l) cold water and a little salt. Bring to the boil, skim, add celery, and bacon in whole; if a stronger flavor is preferred, add l-2 more bay leaves and 1 more carrot. Simmer gently till the stock has reduced to about 1 quart (1.2l) Stir and crush the bones occasionally, so as to draw out all the taste. When ready, strain the soup into a bowl and let it get quite cold. Also drain the little liquid from the meat stock into the hot soup.
When this soup is quite cold there will be a thick layer of fat on the surface. Spoon off the all the fat carefully (as it would make the jelly blurred).
Measure the quantity of soup. For every pint of liquid use 1 oz (28g) leaf gelatine (9 leaves, more or less). In cold weather 2-3 sheets less can be omitted. Soak gelatine in cold water until quite soft, then strain well.
Break 2 eggs whites into a fairly large pan. Take off the inside skin from the shell, crush the shells and add to the egg whites. Beat these two together for two minutes or so, add the cold soup, and the strained gelatine . Put on a low fire and stir the contents continually so that the shells do not stick to the bottom and burn. 1-2 minutes before it comes to the boil stop stirring. There will gradually be a thick froth on the surface. Boil gently for 5 minutes. Take off the fire, gently scoop out the sponge with a flat slotted spoon.
Find a clean sugar bag or linen bag and boil before use. Strain the jelly through the bag into a clean bowl. (Never squeeze the bag to force the liquid out as this will blur the jelly.) When every drop of liquid has gone through the bag, put the jelly aside to cool.
The jelly can be set in a lightly oiled a cake tin or a jelly mould. (Oiling eases the turning out of the jelly from the cake tin.) If using a mould, dip in lukewarm water for a few seconds before turning out.
Array hard-boiled egg slices, and the fruits and vegetables on the bottom of the cake tin or mould. Pour about a couple spoonfuls of jelly over the decoration, taking care not to get them out of place. Let set.
When firm, add more liquid jelly to cover the decorations with a layer about an inch thick, and let set again.
When firm, bring out and put layers of the prepared meat in the centre of the cake tin or mould, leaving a space of ½ inch from edge (to allow space for more decorations and jelly). Put decorations around the upper part of the mould, pour jelly gently, not over the meat, but on the side nearer the tin. Fill mould gently with jelly and chill till serving time.
Turn out on an attractive platter, and decorate with parsley, or a good salad.
Another method for coating jelly mould: Have two moulds or tins, one large one and the other just a little smaller, but of course of the same shape. Put some spoons of jelly in the large tin, and put the smaller tin into it and see that the jelly is enough to reach the brim of the outside mould. Put decorations around the upper part of the mould, pour jelly gently, not over the meat, but on the side nearer the tin. Fill mould gently with jelly and chill till serving time. Turn out on an attractive platter, and decorate with parsley, or a good salad around.*
*     I confess I could not follow this second method for coating the jelly mould. – HdA

GAME PIE v2

[More accurately, game in aspic]
(Mãe)

Ingredients

  • 1 duck
  • 6 quails
  • 2 calf's feet made into clarified jelly(1)
  • 1 pheasant
  • 1 leg of venison
  • 1 hare
  • 3 lbs (1.3kg) soup meat made into 6 cups of stock
  • 1 pkt. gelatine
  • 1 tsp cinnamon powder
  • 1 tsp nutmeg powder
  • ½ tsp all spice
  • ¼ tsp mace
  • ½ tsp mixed spice
  • 2 claret glasses of port wine
  • 2 claret glasses of sherry
  • 1 pint Worcestershire sauce (Lea & Perrins)

Method

Clean the game, cut them into regular size, season with salt and pepper piece by piece. Bake them but not thoroughly.
Butter a large serving bowl that can tolerate oven temperatures. Place the game into the bowl and sprinkle well with the powdered spices. Add the wines and Worcestershire sauce and stand for 24 hours.
Bake all again until well cooked and take out game. Soak the gelatine a little in cold water(2) and then mix well with the gravy from the bowl and salt and pepper according to taste.
Last of all return the game ito the bowl, pour the clarified jelly up to the brim and let it stand till set.

(1)     The method is given in Geléia de Pé de Vaca

(2)     This step was not in the original recipe. – HdA

GELÉIA DE PÉ DE VACA(1)

[Calf foot jelly]
(Mãe)

Ingredients

  • 113 lb (600g) calves' feet(2)
  • 5oz (140g) sugar
  • white wine or port wine
  • 6 eggs

Method

Wash the calves' feet very thoroughly. Boil until very tender then strain through a very fine sieve. Add and dissolve the sugar.
Egg whites are used to clarify the stock. Beat well the whites of 6 eggs and stir into the mixture. As soon as the egg whites begin to cook, remove them gently.
Add 2 glasses of white wine or port.

(1)     This is reputedly a very powerful tonic, with the jelly traditionally set and served in port or sherry glasses. – HdA
(2)     Generally 2 calves' feet weigh 423lb (2.1kg), in which case use 113 lb (600g) sugar).
 I 

INHAME FRITO

[Fried taro]

Ingredients

  • 1 taro
  • 1 tsp Zerzeli
  • ¼-½ tsp salt
  • 3 dsp rice flour
  • ½ oz (14g) fresh coariander
  • tsp coriander powder
  • 1 qt (300ml) best quality Cantonese oil (san yao)
  • 1-2 tsp cold water if needed

Method

Peel the taro, wash, then scrape into very thin strips and add salt.
Wash the fresh coriander, break into small stems and add to the taro, with pepper, coriander powder and linseed. Mix all this together well; if this mixture is too dry just add a little water.
Scoop a teaspoonful and fry in deep hot fat or oil till light brown.

ISCAS Click hear sound

[Fried liver with bacon]
(Melita's cook – Adi)

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) pig's liver
  • 1 tbsp olive oil
  • 3 cloves of garlic, chopped very fine
  • 2 large onions, cut in thin slices
  • 3 spring onions, chopped very fine
  • 1 tbsp vinegar
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • ginger the size of 20 cents, chopped very fine
  • ¼ lb (110g) sliced bacon
  • slices of fried bread
  • 1 tbsp vinegar
  • ¼ lb (110g) sliced bacon
  • slices of fried bread

Method

Cut liver into rather thin slices about 1-2 inch in size. Mix garlic, spring onions, ginger, vinegar, olive oil, salt and pepper. Pour this mixture over the sliced liver, mix well, and put aside for an hour or so.
Fry onions in 1 tbsp of lard; when almost done, add about ¼ cup water and simmer for a couple minutes or till almost dry. Add the liver and stir all the while until just cooked. (Do not overcook as the liver will then be hard and dry. When the liver has changed colour – about 3-5 minutes when frying – take a piece and cut into two: if the inside is not red, it is done.) Put aside and keep warm.
Fry the slices of bacon and then the bread in rather deep fat.
Arrange the bread neatly on a plates, put a nice slice of bacon on each, then pile up neatly one or two spoons of the liver and serve hot.
For variety, a ring of mashed potatoes to replace the fried bread is very nice. Pile liver neatly in the centre of the ring.
If desired, cut some bacon into small pieces, fry and add to the cooked liver just before serving.
 K 

KAI PIN v1

[Chicken with bamboo shoots]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) chicken breast, sliced in small pieces
  • ¼ lb (110g)bamboo shoots, peeled and sliced thin
  • 2 spring onions, cut in l½" lengths
  • ½ tsp flour
  • 2 dsp lard or sung yu oil
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Put the bamboo shoots in a small pan with enough water to cover and a pinch of salt. Cook until tender.
Mix the chicken meat with the flour. Heat lard Have the pan ready with hot lard or oil, put in the salt and pieces of spring onion and a few seconds later the chicken; fry for 2 minutes, then add the bamboo shoots and just enough of the water in which the bamboo shoots were cooked to produce a thin gravy. The chicken will be cooked in 2-3 minutes.

KAI PIN v2

[Chicken with bamboo shoots]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) chicken breast
  • a few slices of Chinese ham, cut in thin strips (optional)
  • 1 tsp cornflour
  • about ½ oz (14g) dried mushrooms
  • ½ lb (220g) bamboo shoots
  • 1 egg white
  • 2 spring onions, cut in 2" lengths
  • salt and pepper

Method

Take the skin off the chicken breast and cut the meat in thin small slices, season with a little salt and pepper and put aside. Boil the bamboo shoots in a little water till tender. Cut in slices, put aside and keep the remaining water.
Soak mushrooms in a little water, discard the stems, and cut mushrooms in thin strips.
Mix the chicken meat with the raw egg white (beaten), add cornflour and mix well.
Start cooking just before serving.
Heat 1-2 tsp lard made from chicken fat. When the lard is hot put in the spring onions and fry for 30 seconds, then add the chicken, stirring and separating each piece. (The whites of the eggs will help to keep the pieces apart and the meat moist.)
When the meat is half cooked, add the mushrooms and most of the ham and cook till almost done, then add the bamboo shoots, water and bring to the boil. If the gravy is too thick, add a little more chicken stock or water or, if it is too thin blend a little more cornflour in a little cold water and add to it. Finally, add about ¼ tsp of ajinomoto (MSG). Bring to the boil, stir well, and it is ready.
Sprinkle with some strips of the ham before serving.
 L 

LAPA

[Meat with glutinous rice wrapped in banana leaves]

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) arroz pulu
  • 4 cloves of garlic, crushed
  • 8 oz pork bones
  • 1 onion, chopped fine
  • 1 pinch of turmeric
  • 1 pinch of pepper
  • 12 oz minced pork
  • chopped chouriço, ham or cha siu
  • 8 oz (220g) tomatoes
  • 1 spring onion
  • 2 oz lard

Method

Make a stock with the pork bones.
Heat lard in a saucepan and fry the crushed garlic till golden brown, then remove.
Fry the spring onion, tomatoes and onion, and then add turmeric , pepper and a little salt, and the raw arroz pulu washed. Stir and put in the pork, and lastly the stock made of the pork bones, the amount of liquid as for boiling rice.
Pour all this mixture into a bowl and steam till cooked. Prepare some banana leaves. For each lapa, take half or quarter banana leaf, put about about 4 tbsp of the rice mixture almost at the end, cover the end leaf over it, fold the two sides and turn it over 2 or 3 times so that the rice does not fall out. Each parcel should be more or less square in shape.
Steam these parcels for about hour, and serve with pickles.

LAP-CHOI

[Pickled vegetables]

Ingredients*

  • mostarda verde (bitter Cantonese green vegetables)
  • vinegar
  • sugar
  • mustard

Method

Wash mostarda verde thoroughly. Cut the lower stems in pieces, but do not use the leaves. Put these pieces into boiling water for about 30 seconds, bring out and drain well, and expose to the sun for a day.
Beat some mustard with a little vinegar and mix into the sugared vinegar, When this mixture is quite cold, bottle the mustarda verde, pour the vinegar in, seal tightly.
*     No salt is given in the recipe. – Guilly

LIMÃO DOCE

[Sweet lemon]

Ingredients

Method

Wash the lemons and thoroughly scrape the outside skin with a grater, being careful not to let the juice out. Wash thoroughly and prick them.
Add salt to pickle*. Place in cold water in a saucepan and bring to the boil and simmer for about ½ hour. Bring out each lemon and drain in a large colander, then soak in filtered cold water for three days, changing the water daily.
Boil white sugar to a very thick syrup and, when quite cold, put the lemons in for 4 days.
Boil the açúcar pedra until the syrup becomes thick; remove from the fire and, when the lemons are quite cold, bottle.

*     No amount was mentioned. I would suggest about ½ lb – Guilly

 M 

MANDARIN FISH*

Ingredients

  • 3 Mandarin fish 7 - 8" (18 - 19cm) long, washed
  • 1 tsp vinegar
  • ginger twice the size of 20 cents
  • 3 spring onions, chopped fine
  • ½ tsp turmeric
  • salt to taste
  • a little more than ¼ cup of water

Method

Scrape the skin off the ginger, cut into very thin slices, then into strips. Fry the ginger in very hot lard, add spring onions and turmeric, then vinegar and water. Be careful not to burn the turmeric. When the gravy has come to the boil, put in the fish and let it simmer until cooked.
*     Also known as Chinese perch see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandarinfish – HdA

MÃO DE PORCO AZEDO

[Sour pig's trotters]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 lb pig's trotters
  • 1 piece ginger size of a dollar coin
  • 2 oz jagra or to taste
  • 4-5 tsp good Cantonese vinegar
  • salt to taste

Method

Wash the trotters well, scraping the surface till quite clean. Cut in 2" lengths.
Scrape with skin off the ginger and crush it.
Put all the above contents in a pan adding enough water to cover, bring to the boil and simmer till quite tender. There should not be very much gravy left.

MIÇO CRISTÃO* v2

[Soy bean paste (literally Christian sauce)]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • ¼ lb (110g) soy beans
  • 1-2 dsp white vinegar
  • ¼ tsp turmeric
  • 2 spring onions, chopped
  • salt to taste
  • 2-3 dsp lard

Method

Wash the beans and soak overnight in cold water.
Drain the beans, put them in a pot, cover with 3" of cold water and boil till quite tender. Remove and pass through the mincing machine.
Heat lard till quite hot and fry the spring onion for 1 minute, add turmeric and fry, taking care not to burn, then add the minced beans and fry for 5 mins. Lastly, add vinegar and salt and fry for a few minutes stir and it is ready.
*     This is a very ancient dish that was served on days of abstinence.

MIGAS

[Plain stuffing]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 5 oz stale bread
  • 4 cloves of garlic
  • 1 large onion, peeled and diced
  • 3 tbsp lard
  • salt and pepper

Method

Soak the stale broad in cold water and when soft squeeze the water out. Peel and crush the garlic.
Heat the lard in a large frying pan and when it is quite hot fry the garlic till it is light brown (the garlic can be removed if desired). Fry the onions in the same lard till soft, adding salt, pepper and bread and mix well. Fry all together for about 10 mins and it is ready.
 O 

OYSTER CAKES

Ingredients

As for White Bait, but with oysters instead of white bait.

Method

Wash the oysters, carefully removing any bits of shell. Drain well and proceed as for White Bait
 P 

PAI QUAT

[Pork spare ribs]

PORK

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) pork rib or pork fillet
  • 1 small egg, beaten
  • ½ -1 tsp flour
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • fat for deep frying

Method

Cut the ribs ¾" long, season, dip in the beaten egg and roll in flour. Deep fry in fat until light brown and drain.

GRAVY

Ingredients

  • 2-3 dsp white Chinese vinegar
  • ¼ cup water
  • ¼ tsp soy sauce
  • 2 pieces of jagra
  • a few strings of Chinese sweet pickles (kwa yen)
  • pinch of salt
  • Chinese sticky flour

Method

Put the vinegar, water, soy sauce and jagra into a small saucepan, add a pinch of salt and bring to the boil.
Add enough water to the Chinese flour to make a thick paste. Put just enough of this mixture to make the gravy a little thick. Bring to the boil.
Remove from the fire, stir in the fried ribs, stir until the ribs are fully coated with the gravy. Pour the contents in a dish, sprinkle the top with sweet pickles and serve hot.

PÃO DE VACA Click hear sound

[Meat loaf (literally, bread with beef)]

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) minced beef
  • ¼ lb (110g) minced bacon
  • 2 dsp tomato paste
  • ¼ tsp grated nutmeg
  • 2 large egg yolks
  • 1 dsp brandy
  • dash of salt and pepper
  • ½ tsp butter
  • 2 dsp powdered bread crumbs toasted

Method

Mix all the ingredients well. Place in a baking dish and shape it nicely. Sprinkle bread crumbs on the surface to make a brown crust after baking. Top with a few dabs of butter all over if desired.
Bake in a low oven for half to one hour or till done.
This can be served as a hot or cold dish.

PÃO DE VACA DE BELIZA

[Meat loaf]
(Beliza)

Ingredients

  • 2 lb (900g) beef
  • ½ lb (220g) pork
  • 6 yolks of eggs
  • 1 wineglass brandy
  • 1 tin tomato paste
  • 1 dsp butter
  • toasted breadcrumbs
  • 1 large onion, chopped fine

Method

Mince the beef and pork together through a mincing machine. Lightly beat the yolks. Put the mince meat in a large bowl, add yolks, brandy, tomato paste, melted butter, salt and pepper, and mix thoroughly. Lastly, add enough breadcrumbs to make a moist paste.
Put the contents in an oblong baking tin, and pat the surface smoothly, pushing the border around, down, making it look like a leaf. Sprinkle with toasted breadcrumbs on the surface, and bake in a moderate oven for an hour or till done. Any fat appearing after baking should be spooned over the surface so that every bit of the goodness can get into the meat
. Serve hot or cold.

PÃO RECHEADO Click hear sound

[Stuffed bread rolls]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 12 bread rolls(1) (salted)
  • 225g minced pork
  • açafrão (saffron – but usually this is taken to be turmeric)
  • pepper
  • coriander powder
  • good quality cheese, grated
  • pitted and diced olives
  • finely chopped spring onions
  • salt and pepper
  • fat for deep frying

(1)     These would probably have to be small bread rolls.

Method

Rolls

Cut out a deep conical-shaped plug from the centre of the bottom of each bread roll (lengthwise)(2) the size of a large olive. As the knife goes through, take a deep piece of the inside at an angle so that to the small crust there will be attached a pointed soft part. (This will help bond the lid to the stuffing.)
Put in your finger and draw out all the soft part of the roll. Be careful not to damage the crust as the gravy of the filling may run out.
Keep the crumbed centres of the bread rolls that were removed.
Prepare each roll in the same manner and set aside.

Filling

When this is all ready, heat two teaspoons of lard in a frying pan and when quite hot, put in the chopped leaks, fry for a minute, mix the saffron, coriander powder and pepper together and add to the fried spring onions. Fry for 2 minutes over a slow fire (being careful not to burn as this will turn bitter). Add 2 tbsp of water and let it cook for another two minutes.
Then add the pork and let it fry for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally, and add a little salt. When this is almost cooked, add olives and about ¼ cup of water, and let it boil until about half of the gravy is left. Remove from the fire.
Take about 2-3 tbsp of the fine breadcrumbs, broken very fine, and add to this mixture, making it a soppy consistency, and lastly, put in the grated cheese. When this is cool, fill each roll well with the filling, leaving just a little space for the lid, then put on the cover.
Half-fill a large frying pan with lard. Wet your hand with water and dampen the crusts of the rolls all over and fry them in the hot fat. When one side is of a nice brown colour, turn on to the other side. Drain on paper and serve hot.
Sweet rolls can also be used, but the crust will not be so crispy after frying.

(2)     It is unclear what Guilly meant by "lengthwise".

PAPA DE PORCO SALMOURADO

[Rice porridge with pickled pork]

Ingredients

  • 3 cups water
  • ½ cup rice
  • 1 spring onion (tied in a knot)
  • Left-over of pickled pork (porco salmourado), cut in small pieces
  • a pinch of salt (if required)

Method

Bring water, rice and spring onion to the boil, reduce heat and simmer gently for 20 minutes, then stir the congee briskly to smoothen the rice, add leftover saffron pork and cook for 10 minutes or till done. Add salt if desired or needed.
*     From Annie Sousa's collection

PAPA Click hear sound DE VACA

[Thick rice porridge with beef]

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) rice
  • ¼ lb (110g) minced beef
  • 2 tsp soy sauce
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 3 spring onions
  • ¼ tsp flour

Method

Put the minced beef in a bowl with 2 finely chopped spring onions, soy sauce, flour and a pinch of salt and if desired a dash of pepper. Mix thoroughly and roll into small balls. Put aside.
Boil the rice with water and 1 spring onion tied to a knot. After ¼ hour add the meat balls and stir into the papa, being careful not to break the balls. Simmer very slowly, stirring well occasionally so that the taste of the meat goes into the papa and also so that the bottom will not burn.

PAPER BAG CHICKEN

Ingredients

  • 1 large chicken (about 7 lb, 3.2 kg)
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 1 tin asparagus

Method

Hang the feathered chicken for a couple of days.
Cut the chicken in big chunks and season well with salt and pepper. Put in a large pyrex dish and cover with 2 or 3 layers of oiled paper, tying the sides so that no vapour is lost. Bake in a moderate oven for 2-3 hr.
Ten minutes before serving, add the asparagus and about ¼ cup of the asparagus water; cover well with the paper and leave in the oven until the asparagus is hot.

PASTELINHA Click hear sound

[Tartlet]
(Guilly)

PASTRY

Follow the Empada recipe(1)

STUFFING

Ingredients

  • 450g minced pork
  • 4 spring onions, finely chopped
  • 4 dsp grated cheese
  • 28g sliced almonds (optional)

Method

Heat 2 tsp of lard in a frying pan and fry the spring onions for 1 min.. Add the saffron and fry for ½ min, being careful not to burn, and then the pork, and fry all together for 5 min., stirring occasionally so as not to burn. When this is cooked, season and put in the sliced almonds.
When done, remove from the fire and add the cheese, mixing well. Let this mixture cool.
Roll out the pastry to 1/8" (3mm) in thickness and cut out circles to fit the bottoms and the tops.
Put in each tin two or more teaspoons of the filling, dampen edges with cold water, lay the pastry top evenly on the filling and press down on the edges to seal.
Bake in a slow oven till done. Do not have the heat too high, as the outside will burn with the inside raw. If the top browns too quickly, cover the surface with a sheet of paper.
(1)     Empada recipe not in Guilly's collection – see recipe by J. Bosco Correa.
(2)     It would appear that she is referring to muffin moulds.

PIGEON INDIANO

Ingredients

  • 5 pigeons, cut in half
  • 2 large onions, cut in eighths
  • 1 hardboiled egg
  • about 10 olives, pitted and chopped
  • 2 tbsp olive oil
  • 2 tbsp white wine
  • 2 tbsp lard
  • salt and pepper
  • 1 tsp flour

Method

Chop very fine the pigeons' hearts, livers and gizzards and the white of the hardboiled egg.
Fry the onions in the lard till light brown, then add the pigeons and fry till no raw colour is visible. Add salt and pepper and enough water almost to cover the pigeons. Simmer gently for half and hour. Add the chopped liver, gizzard and heart and let it all simmer till tender.
Put the yolk of the hardboiled egg in a cup and mash to a paste with a little of the pigeon gravy.
10 minutes before serving add the olives, yolk and egg white and boil, and then thicken the gravy with a paste made of flour thinned out with a little cold water.
Bring to the boil; just before serving add wine and olive oil.

PIGEON PIE

Ingredients

  • 3 pigeons, cut in halves or quarters
  • 1 onion, chopped
  • 1 small piece cinnamon
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 2 cloves
  • 1 tbsp wine
  • salt and pepper
  • 2 potatoes, peeled and cut in quarters
  • 6 Chinese dried mushrooms
  • 1 tsp lard
  • 2 hardboiled eggs, cut in half lengthwise

Method

Fry the onion in hot lard, add the pigeons and fry well. Put about 2 cups water, then the cinnamon, cloves, bay leaf, salt and pepper, and simmer till tender. Put aside till quite cold.
Prepare ½ lb (220g) of puff pastry on the eve. Roll out a piece ¼" thick. Invert a round pyrex dish on it and cut a circle of pastry about 1" larger than the top of the dish. Roll out the remainder of the pastry to a thickness of ½" to ¾" and cut in strips 1" wide. Put the pastry in a cool place.
Fill the pie dish with the meat mixture. Array the eggs neatly with the yolks downward. The gravy should fill only about ¾ of the dish.
Wet the border of the pie dish and lay the round piece of pastry carefully over and press down evenly on the dish border. Brush a 1"-wide circle around the border with water and attach neatly all around the strips which had been cut previously. Cut a small round hole in the centre of the pie to allow steam to escape.
Brush the surface of the pie with a beaten egg, leave in a cool place for 1 hour
.

PIGEONS WITH OLIVES AND PEAS

Ingredients

  • 5 pigeons, cut in halves
  • 2 large onions, cut up
  • 1 doz olives
  • 1 lb (450g) green peas
  • 2 tbsp olive oil
  • 2 tbsp white wine
  • 2 tbsp lard
  • salt and pepper

Method

Canned peas can be used but if fresh peas are used boil them separately.
Fry onions in hot lard, then add pigeons including (if desired) the hearts, livers and gizzards, stirring occasionally till the colour is completely changed, then add salt and pepper and water to half cover the pigeons. Bring to the boil, then simmer slowly, stirring occasionally till quite tender.
10 minutes before serving add olives and peas, and thicken the gravy with a little flour or cornflour mixed with a little water. Just before serving add wine and olive oil.

PORCO BALICHÃO TAMARINHO Click hear sound v2

[Pork with balichão and tamarind]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) pork with skin, cut into ¾" (2cm) cubes
  • 1 large walnut-sized piece of tamarind pulp
  • 2 dsp balichão
  • 1 piece of jagra or 1 dsp sugar, to taste

Method

Soak the tamarind in ¼ cup of water, squeeze hard to draw out all the taste. If there is not sufficient liquid, add a little more water to the tamarind pulp to draw out more of its taste. Discard the pulp.
Fry the balichão in a tsp of lard for 2 mins, add pork with skin and fat and fry for 3-5 mins. then add the tamarind juice.
Add water so that the pork wait is ¾ covered, add the sugar and simmer till quite tender. More sugar may be added to taste.

Alternative Method

Simmer all the ingredients together until the pork is tender.

PORCO BAMBOO*

[Skewered pork]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • ¼ lb (110g) pork with skin, washed and cut into ¾" (2cm) cubes with skin
  • 6 cebola mato, washed, tipped and cut in half lengthwise
  • 4 slices pickled ginger, washed and cut in cubes the same size as the pork
  • ¼ tsp turmeric
  • 2 spring onions, tied up
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • ¼ tsp Chinese vinegar
  • 6 wooden skewers 3 and 3½" long and thick enough not to bend

Method

On each skewer, in succession spike pieces of pork, cebola mato and and ginger and repeat up to about 2" before the and of the skewer. Put them neatly in a pan, add lard and fry.
Add turmeric, salt, vinegar and spring onions and cover with water. Bring to the boil then simmer gently uncovered until tender the water has evaporated.
The fat will gradually ooze out of the pork; let it fry gently till light brown.
*     This recipe also appears, with minor variations, in Annie Sousa's collection.

PORCO CUCUZ

[Steamed pork]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

Method

Mince the pork, cut the spring onion until small and fry the mela miçó into thin strips ½" long. Mix well the pork, soy sauce, salt and pepper, spring onion and flour in a bowl. Press the mixture down in a bowl all the way to the edge, and push an indentation in the centre. Sprinkle the mela miçó all over the surface of the meat, pressing down lightly to make it stick. Drop a raw egg in the indentation at the centre and steam for about 20 minutes or till done.

PORCO MELA MIÇÓ(1)

[Pork with sweet cucumber pickle (literally, honey sauce)(2)]

Ingredients

  • ¼ lb (110g) pork
  • 3 pieces mela miçó (cha qua in Cantonese)
  • ¼ tsp soy sauce
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • ¼ tsp lard
  • 2 spring onions, chopped

Method

Cut the pork and the mela miçó in very thin strips 1" (2.5cm) long. Heat lard in a pot and the spring onions. Add the pork with salt and pepper and fry well. Put in the mela miçó and soy sauce and continue to fry for 2 mins then add water to cover. Simmer till meat is tender and only about 5 tbsp of gravy remain.
Serve hot with rice.
(1)     This recipe also appears, with minor variations, in Annie Sousa's collection.
(2)     I have found no recipe for mela miçó – HdA

PORCO VINHO D'ALHO

[Pork in wine and garlic]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 2 lb (900g) pork chop or a thick piece of pork leg
  • ¾ of a whole garlic
  • ½ oz (14g) ginger
  • 1 tsp of cummin
  • 6 tbsp coliang wine (best quality)
  • ½ tbsp pepper
  • 1 level tsp turmeric
  • 1½ tbsp salt
  • 4 tbsp Cantonese vinegar

Method

Wash and prick pork with a fork thoroughly.
Chop the garlic fine and mix with the rest of the ingredients. Pour all over the chop and prick again. Keep in the refrigerator for two or three days, pricking well and turning twice every day to let the marinade infuse.
Boil in about ½ cup of water, then simmer till the meat is tender and no more gravy is left.
Fry the meat in the fat that accumulates at the bottom of the pan until it is golden brown both sides.
If beef is preferred, a good piece of rump can be cooked in the same way.

PORCO SALMOURADO or PORCO VINHO D'ALHO

[Pickled pork with turmeric or Pork in wine and garlic]

Ingredients

  • 1 thick slice of pork with skin (1 lb, 450g)
  • 1 dsp white vinegar
  • ¾ dsp salt
  • 1 dsp Chinese wine (coliang)
  • 3 cloves of garlic
  • 2 spring onions (tied in a bunch)
  • ½ dsp turmeric
  • Ginger 20 cent size, scraped and crushed

Method

Put all the above in a pot and cover with water. Bring to the boil and simmer slowly till quite tender and until all the gravy is gone.
Take the piece of cooked pork gently out of the pot and strain the fat from the pot to a clean frying pan.
Heat the fat and when quite hot, fry the pork on both sides till nice and brown and crispy on the outside.
To make porco salmourado more tasty soak the raw meat in all the ingredients for a couple of days, turning over each day.

PORK WITH BAMBOO SHOOTS or WITH TAO FU BI

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (225g) fat pork with skin, washed and cut into 1-in cubes
  • 2 dsp soy sauce
  • ¼ cup Chinese wine (ló chiu)
  • 6 pieces of tao fu bi (optional)

Method

With Tao Fu Bi:
Put the pork in a pot with Chinese wine, soy sauce and enough water to cover, a pinch of salt if needed. Bring to a boil, then simmer gently till quite tender.
In the meantime, cut the squares of tao fu bi in halves, tie a knot in the centre and soak in a bowl with boiling water with a pinch of bicarbonate of soda for 5 mins. Squeeze two or three times in this water so that the inside of the knots can get soft. Strain and wash two or three times in plain cold water to get all the soda out. Then squeeze these knots almost dry. Put this with the cooked pork and simmer for 10 mins to get all the taste in. If there is not enough liquid to simmer the tao fu bi, add a little water.
With Bamboo Shoots:
 
Boil the pork the same way as with the tao fu bi until half tender. In the meantime skin two bamboo shoots taking away the tough bottom; cut all the tender parts in chunks and add to the half cooked pork. Simmer till all is quite tender.

PORTUGUESE SAUSAGES(1)

(Author unknown)

Ingredients

  • 4 lbs (1.8kg) pork - cut in small pieces
  • 1 tsp pepper
  • 4 tsp black sweet soy sauce
  • 1 tsp white soy sauce
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 1½ wineglass of white wine or Madeira
  • chilli (optional)
  • spoonful of cummin powder (optional)
  • spoonful of coriander powder (optional<)/li>

Method

Mix all the ingredients and fill into sausage casings. Maka a few pin pricks and place in the sun to dry. When oil starts oozing then the sausages are ready for use.
(1)     This seems more likely to be Macanese rather than truly Portuguese, as soy sauces are used. – HdA
(2)     The recipe specifies that the pork is not to be touched by water.

PUFF PASTRY WITH BEEF SUET

Ingredients

  • 14 oz (400g) flour
  • 10 ozs (280g) beef suet, shredded
  • 1 egg yolk
  • ¼ tsp salt

Method

Remove all the skin and fibre from the suet and ensure that only fat remains. Lay on a board and press down with a rolling pin; if it is too dry, warm (but do not melt) over the stove.
Roll, push and press down the suet until quite fine and smooth like soft wax and uniform consistency. Shape it into a pat and leave in a warm place.
In the meantime prepare the dough. Sift the flour and salt in a bowl, make a hole in the centre, pat in the yolk and add enough water to make dough - pliable but not too sticky nor too hard. Knead this for about 5 minutes until quite smooth.
Dust the board with flour and roll out this paste to a rectangle 18" (45cm) long and 9" (20cm) wide. Slightly dust one corner of the board and press the pat of suet flat with an area about ½ of that of the paste. Lay the suet on one half of the dough, cover it with the other half and fold the two borders of the three open sides securely so as to keep the air in. Roll out carefully and evenly. (Do not push the rolling pin over the dough as this will spoil the layers).
Roll into an oblong shape, fold in three having the end always on the left side of the board; roll and fold six times altogether and the dough is ready for use.
The pastry is improved if kept in a cold pace and baked the next day. After preparing pies, patties, etc, brush the top with yolk or milk to glaze. Cover with a damp cloth over so that the surface will not get too dry and leave in the refrigerator until ready to bake.
 Q 

QUAIL PIE

Ingredients

  • 10 quails
  • 6 oz (170g) veal or pork meat
  • 3 oz (80g) raw chinese ham
  • 1 slice stale bread
  • salt and pepper
  • 1 bunch celery
  • 1 qt (600ml) water
  • 1 carrot
  • 1 onion
  • peppercorns
  • bay leaves

Method

Make jelly mixture by boiling and simmering soup meat in water with a pinch of salt, bay leaves, peppercorns, carrot and onion for 1½ hours.. Strain and remove as much of the fat as possible and let it cool. Clarify the jelly as in the recipe for Sliced Game Pie.
Wash the quails well, rinse the veal and ham, soak the bread in water, squeeze dry and mix well with veal and ham, and season. Put a little of this stuffing into each of the quails then put them in a bowl and steam, seasoning the birds well with salt and pepper. When quite tender put in a mould. Take away all the fat that may show in the juices and mix the juices with the jelly mixture.
Pour this jelly over the quail and let it set. Turn out when quite cold.
 R 

RABANO ANTONE

[Pickled Chinese white radish]

Ingredients

Chinese white radish

Method

Cut off the white radish stalks, leaving about 1 inch. Wash thoroughly and leave it to dry in the sun for a day. Rub each one thickly with salt, put in a large bowl, add enough cold filtered water just enough to cover for 2 days, after which will be ready to serve.
Some red chills can be added.

RENDERING FAT

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) pig fat (For this purpose use the thick white fat with very thin pieces of skin on both sides from the stomach of the pig, and not from the meaty part.)
  • 1 tsp water

Method

Cut fat in 1" cubes, put in a pan with the water, bring to the boil and simmer over low heat stirring occasionally. After a while the lard will exude and the rendered fat float to the surface. When these have shriveled and look dry, drain the lard into a bowl, pressing every bit of lard out of the rendered fat till dry.
The rendered fat can be used for toresmo.

RIMS CHACHAO

[Stir-fried kidneys]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 6 pig kidneys
  • ginger about the size of a dollar
  • 6 spring onions, chopped fine
  • ¾ wine glass of sweet white wine or any other sweet wine

Method

Cut kidneys flatwards into two. Remove the white parts inside completely. Wash the kidneys well, drain and score about halfway through with six or seven cuts, then cut in thin slices across. Do not wash after this but set aside.
Scrape the skin off the ginger, wash and cut into very thin strips. Boil ¼ cup of water.
Make very hot 3 dsp lard in a pan, add about ½ tsp salt and fry, add the ginger and fry for 3 mins, then the spring onions. When this is done add kidneys and stir fry, till the colour starts to change. Add the boiling water and stir till the kidney looks cooked on the inside. (Do not boil as that would make the kidney tough.)
Just before serving add the wine.

RISOTTO MILANESE

Ingredients

  • beef or chicken stock
  • rice
  • onions
  • garlic
  • some sausage meat, or pork cut in very small bits
  • dried mushrooms
  • turmeric
  • fresh butter
  • parmesan cheese
  • vinho branco (white wine)

Method

Soak the mushrooms in hot water.
Mix the meat with garlic, salt and pepper, and let stand for some time.
Fry garlic and onions in plenty of butter; when almost done, fry the sausage meat till crisp, add rice to the saucepan and ladle in the stock. As the rice cooks and absorbs the stock, add more stock, stirring continuously to avoid burning. When the rice is half cooked, put in the mushrooms.
When the rice is about done, put in a pinch of turmeric . (The rice must be somewhat drier than papa but not too dry.
Before serving put in some white wine and plenty of parmesan cheese.

ROAST CHICKEN WITH STEWED PRUNES

CHICKEN

Ingredients

  • 1 large fat chicken (7-8 lb, 3-3.6kg)
  • 1 lb (450g) prunes
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

If the weather is very cold, feather the chicken and hang it up for 2-3 days. This makes the meat much more tender.
Wash and soak the prunes in cold water overnight.
Wash the chicken thoroughly, put the fat aside and season well with salt and pepper inside and outside. Put on a baking tin, lay the chicken fat over the breast. Roast slowly for 1½ -2 hours or till done.
When the chicken is almost done place the prunes in the tray and let it simmer for 15 mins in the chicken fat and gravy. Serve the chicken in a large dish with prunes around.

STUFFING (optional)

Ingredients

  • chicken gizzard
  • liver, ¼ lb (110g)
  • veal, ¼ lb (110g)
  • raw Chinese ham
  • 1 oz (28g) bread crumbs
  • 1 beaten egg

Method

Mix all the ingredients together and stuff in the upper chest of the chicken.

ROAST DUCK (STUFFED)

Ingredients

  • 1 duck or goose
  • 1 tsp lard or fat from the duck or goose
  • salt and pepper
  • migas stuffing

Method

Clean and wash the duck thoroughly, season well the inside and outside with salt and pepper, fill the migas stuffing through the stomach aperture. If possible use a baking pan just large enough to fit the duck: with too large a pan the liquid will be inclined to dry up and burn.
With an electric cooker no basting is necessary*, otherwise baste 3 or 4 times during roasting.
*     Basting was probably needed when cooking in wood ovens. – HdA

ROAST SUCKLING PIG

Ingredients

  • 1 suckling pig 6-8 lb (2.7-3.6kg)
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • lard
  • mustard
  • vinegar
  • olive oil
  • egg yolks

Method

Wash the suckling pig thoroughly and then with a clean cloth wipe completely dry. Let it stand in a cool place for a day or two, then give a good rubbing of salt and pepper on the inside as well as the outside, being careful not to have the skin salty.
Stretch it on a baking tray with as much as possible of the skin on the surface. If the tray is too small cut off the head and trotters, and place them on the side.
Put in a very hot pre-heated oven. Brush the whole skin with lard every 10 to 15 minutes, until the skin is beautifully browned and crispy. If the skin is allowed to sit on the tray it will turn soft.*
To prepare the sauce, open the head and take out the brains and the tongue. Cut these into small cubes. Beat the yolks adding olive oil a drop at a time and when it thickens add the oil in bigger quantities until all is used, then put in the mustard, salt and a pinch of sugar if desired and go on beating. When this is well mixed add vinegar and lastly the tongue and brains.
*     The original text is unclear ("Let skin part turned on to the board as this will make the skin soft."); this is what I think was meant. – HdA

ROLETE

[Croquettes]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (225g) minced pork
  • 4 spring onions chopped fine
  • 1 thin slice of bread, soaked in water and squeezed
  • 3 tsp grated cheese
  • ¼ tsp chopped mint
  • 2 raw eggs, beaten
  • toasted bread crumbs
  • fat for deep frying
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Mix well the pork, spring onions, bread, cheese, salt and pepper in a bowl.
With a teaspoon, shape into cylindrical croquettes with flat ends. Drop each rolete into the beaten eggs and coat it well; draw it out and drain off as much as of the egg as possible and roll into the toasted bread crumbs.
Fry in deep fat till light brown, drain on a sheet of paper.

ROTTI

[Unleavened Indian bread]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) flour, sifted
  • 2 cups boiling water
  • 2 oz (56g) ghee
  • 1 tsp salt

Method

Bring the water, ghee and salt to the boil, put in the flour and stir briskly till all the flour is moist. Cover the lid and leave on the side of the stove for 20 minutes. Then turn on to a board, knead till smooth. Take little lumps the size of a walnut and roll out thinly to the thickness of a very flat pancake. Oil the frying pan with a cloth dipped in ghee. (A better method is to use an electric cooker: oil one of the stove plates being careful not to let any ghee run over the edge or it will smoke terribly.)
Put on a pancake on and let it cook for 2 minutes, then turn it on the other side and cook till light brown. Go through the same process with the rest of the pancakes.
Curry served with rotti should have more gravy than usual.
See also recipe on the web – HdA
 S 

SAMBAL DE BRINJELA

[Egg plant pickle]

Ingredients

  • 1 egg plant
  • 1 large onion, cut in eighths
  • 2-3 tomatoes*, cut into eighths
  • 1 dsp lard
  • 1 dsp balichão
  • 1 tsp white vinegar
  • ¼ tsp chili miçó (optional)
  • a small piece of jagra or a little sugar, to taste
  • salt to taste

Method

Wash the egg plants and cut into quarters lengthwise, and then cut each quarter into chunks at an angle.
Heat lard, fry the balichão and then fry the onions for 5 mins, then add the tomatoes and fry till rather moist. Add egg plants, vinegar and jagra and simmer till tender. Five mins before serving add chili miçó. If this is not sweet enough add sugar as per taste.
*     In Annie Sousa's version of this recipe, the tomatoes are seeded.

SERRABULHO

[Jugged pork]

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) pork belly
  • 1 pig's heart
  • 1 bundle of tripe
  • ½ lb (225g) pork liver
  • 1 lb (450g) pork blood*
  • 1 onion
  • 1 dried onion
  • 4 bay leaves
  • cummin powder
  • coriander powder
  • turmeric powder
  • 1 pinch of 5-spice powder
*     This is probably meant to be jellied pig's blood (in Cantonese chee heet), available from some Asian grocers.

Method

This is prepared in three steps.
  • First step. Wash the blood twice in cold water, beating with a spoon. When this is done, scald and pour off the water. Add a teaspoon of vinegar and immediately cook in lard in a pan. Remove from the heat and wash the pan for the third step.
  • Second step. Wash and cut the heart in two, season with salt and pepper. Wash the tripe, pass a clove of garlic from one end to the other, and cut into two pieces. Season the pork belly in salt and pepper. Fry these three ingredients in the same casserole, add enough water to cover, and cook until tender.
  • Third step. Put a generous amount of lard in a pan and gently fry these together in a saucepan, add enough water to cook them and simmer until soft.
  • Put enough lard in a pot to fry the onions, dried onions, cummin, coriander and turmeric and, when they exude a wonderful smell, add the liver and the pork meat, heart and tripe, and finally the blood and bay leaves. (Optionally, add several slices of lemon.) All the ingredients are sliced fine when cooked.

SHRIMP* CAKES

Ingredients

As for White Bait, but with shrimps instead of white bait.

Method

Wash, peel and season the shrimps and fry in ½ tsp of lard until the juices have dried up. Cool the shrimps.
Proceed as for White Bait, adding the shrimps to the batter.
*     These would probably be called prawns in some countries. – HdA

SHRIMP CAKES WITH DAIKON1

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) shelled shrimps2
  • ¼ lb (110g) white radish
  • flour
  • water
  • 2 eggs
  • 3 spring onions, chopped
  • salt and pepper
  • fat for deep frying

Method

Prepare a thicker batter than for White Bait or Shrimp Cakes (but without adding the egg white).
Fry the shrimps well. Fry the white radish until ¼ cooked. When cool, add to the batter and fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites.
Have ready tin moulds about 1½" high and 2" in diameter. (The proper moulds have metal handles.)
Heat 2" of lard in a deep pan. Dip a mould in, bring out, fill ¾ full with the batter and fry in the lard until it begins to brown. Shake out of the mould and continue frying until quite cooked.
1     Also called Chinese white radish
2     These would probably be called prawns in some countries. – HdA

SLICED GAME PIE

Ingredients

  • 2 hen pheasant
  • ¼ lb (110g) venison
  • 3 wild ducks
  • 1 lb (450g) Western ham in slices
  • salt and pepper
  • 1½ qt water
  • 2 carrots
  • 1 lemon peel or celery (optional)
  • 2 bay leaves
  • 2 onions

Method

Wash the game well, season with salt and pepper inside and outside, place on a baking tray, dab a little lard over each game and roast till cooked. When they are quite cold, slice all thinly and put aside.
Put the gravy into the pan and take away all the fat. Chop all the bones of the roast and put together in the pan adding 1½ quart of water, onions, bay leaves and carrots. Simmer for about 1 hour. Stir well to get all the taste out. Then strain and when quite cold take every bit of the fat out.
Clarify as in the recipe for Diced Game Pie.

SONHO* RECHEADO Click hear sound

[Stuffed eclairs (literally, "filled dreams")]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 cup boiling water
  • ½ lb flour
  • ½ tsp lard
  • 5 large eggs

Method

Add flour and ½ tsp lard to the boiling water and stir well with 3 or 4 chopsticks till the flour has absorbed all the water. Remove from the heat and cover for 5 min, then bring out the dough on a board and knead well with the lard using only one hand.
When slightly cool break in 1 raw egg and squeeze the flour into it and go on kneading. After a few minutes add another egg, kneading until well mixed and do the same with the rest of the eggs
.
If it sticks too much on the board, scrape with a knife and put all the dough in a pile. When all the eggs are in, knead for another 5 minutes. The consistency should be rather sticky - neither too thin running nor too thick.
Heat lard in a large pan. (The lard should not be boiling hot as this will make the paste brown and crusty before it has had time to puff out and the inside will be raw.) Dip in a deep round spoon in, bring out and ¾ fill with the spoon with the dough. Shake it out of the spoon into the hot lard. Fry 3-4 of these at a time for a min or so till well puffed, and the inside quite hollow.
Just before serving fill with chicken stuffing as per Arroz Milanese (white sauce chicken).
*     Sonhos can be served with sugar syrup as a sweet course.

SOPA ASSADO

[A hearty soup from the leftovers of cozido (literally, "roast soup")]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • This is made with the left overs of cozido.

Method

Remove all the bones from the meat and chop the meat fine (do not put it through the mincing machine). Chop each of the vegetables – cabbage, Chinese white radish, carrots, etc – separately. Sweet potatoes, chestnuts, and taro can also be chopped and added if desired but they do as well, being farinaceous.
Slice stale bread, ¼ " thick, and grate a good portion of Dutch (or similar) cheese.
Heat up the leftover soup. In a large pyrex bowl put a layer of the sliced bread at the bottom, then a good sprinkling of grated cheese, and after it, a thin layer each of carrots, meat, cabbage, white radish, etc, and repeat the layering until all is used up. The top layer should be of bread which will be crusty when baked.
Season with salt and pepper to taste. Pour just a few ladles of the hot soup over and move gently so that the soup is distributed through. (Do not made it too sloppy.)
Bake in a moderate oven till the top is golden and crispy.
Boil the remaining soup. Serve a portion of the soup assado in a soup plate, and help yourself to enough soup to suit your taste.

SOPA DE CABEÇA DE CARNEIRO

[Sheep's head soup]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 sheep's head and 4 trotters
  • 3 quarts (1.8l) water
  • ¼ lb (110g) pearl barley
  • 3 large carrots
  • 1 Chinese white radish
  • 2 onions, halved
  • 6 peppercorns
  • 2 bay leaves
  • salt to taste

Method

When buying the sheep's head, tell the butcher to slit the head open lengthwise; wash the head well, scraping the little hairy parts which may be left there; wash inside the ears and take off the eyes, nose, lips and teeth if possible.
Soak in salt and water for a few minutes, bring out and put in a pot, cover with water and bring to the boil. Throw away this water, rinse 2-3 times in clean water, put back in the pot with 3 quarts of water and bring to the boil. When this is done, add the bay leaf, onions, carrots, white radish, peppercorns and salt and let them simmer till the meat is quite tender. Bring out the onions, carrots and white radish and cut in very small cubes.
Then bring out the sheep's head, take out the brains carefully and put aside. Take off the whole of the tongue and peel off the surface skin. When they are quite cold cut in cubes a little larger than the carrots, etc.
Bring out the whole of the head, put on a plate, and draw out the skinny and meaty parts. Take the better parts and cut into pieces. When this is done, put all aside.
Strain the soup into another pot, being careful not to let any bones into the soup. Wash the barley well, add to the soup and cook till tender, then add carrots, white radish, onions, etc. Just before serving add the brain and tongue. These two are to be cut when quite cold as otherwise they will break and will not look neat.

SOPA DE GNEE KO

[Gnee ko soup]

Ingredients

  • stock
  • 1 lb (450g) pork ribs
  • 1 lb (450g) la-ap (ade salgado)
  • 4 lb (1.8kg) sausages, preferably home made choriço de sutate
  • 3 lb (1.35kg) mostarda Nanking (wong gna che)
  • 3 qt water for stock
  • 1 dsp salt
  • 2 lb apa branco
  • gnee ko cut in very thin slices

Method

To prepare the stock, follow the same recipe as for Apa Branco*. Put sliced gnee ko in cold water until the soup containing the mostarda Nanking is ready.
Strain the water from the gnee ko and add to the soup. Bring to the boil and serve at once with sliced sausages over it.
This cannot be kept as the soup will be too thick and sticky.
*     But I have found no recipe for apa branco – HdA

SOPA DELICIOSA

[Soup with egg dumplings (literally, delicious soup)]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 quart (600ml) good stock
  • 1 tsp flour
  • ¾ tsp butter
  • 1 carrot
  • 2 hard boiled eggs
  • 1 onion
  • ½ tsp grated cheese
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

When boiling the stock add the onion and carrot and a little salt. Put the butter in a small frying pen and when it is quite hot add the flour and fry till golden colour, stirring all the time so as not to burn. Then add a tsp of boiling hot stock and stir well, then another tsp and go on stirring till the flour is thinned out to rather a thin consistency. Add to the soup. Slice the whites of the hard boiled eggs and put in the soup tureen.
Mash the yolks well and add a pinch of flour, salt and pepper and also ½ tsp of grated cheese. Make into small balls, a little larger than a pea, and roll in a little flour and fry in deep fat. If this mixture is hard to mould, a tiny bit of butter or soup can be added. Fry till golden brown.
Cut 2 slices of stale bread into small squares and fry them to a golden brown.
Pour the soup into the tureen with sliced egg whites in. Lastly, add the yolk balls and fried bread. If a thicker soup is preferred, use more of the butter and flour. Thin strips of bacon can be added.

SOPA DE PEIXE Click hear sound

[Fish soup]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 medium sized fish or 1 crab
  • A little celery or parsley
  • A few onions
  • 2 cloves of garlic
  • 1 bay leaf
  • ½ tsp salt
  • 1 tsp lard

Method

Fry the celery, parsley, onions, garlic and bay leaf and when done add 1 quart (1.2l) of water and bring to the boil.
Wash the fish or crab well, put into the boiling stock and boil for 10 mins or till done. Take out the fish, bone it and return the meat to the pot.
Put the fish or crab in the pot. Put in a few slices of stale bread in the soup tureen, and pour the soup over and serve.

SOPA DE VANTAN

[Wonton soup]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1½ qts (900l) of good chicken or pork stock
  • 3 spring onions chopped fine
  • 1 egg
  • 3tsp soy sauce
  • 1(?) tsp chi ma yao
  • ¼ lb (110g) minced pork
  • 2 dozen vantan pei
  • salt and pepper to taste

Method

Mix half the spring onions and half the chi ma yao with the minced pork, season with salt and pepper. Lightly beat the egg and mix all together well. Put a little of the soy sauce, spring onion and seasoning in the stock.
Pack a little of the meat mixture in each vantan pei till all is used up.
Drop into the boiling stock, boil for 2 mins or till the meat is cooked. Add the other half of the chi ma yao and serve immediately.
Overcooking makes it sloppy.

SOPA PORTUGUÉSA

[Portuguese soup]

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) brisket of beef
  • 2 nervos
  • ½ lb (220g) salt beef (optional)
  • 2 quarts (1.2l) water
  • bay leaves
  • 3 good sized carrots, sliced
  • 2 large onions, cut in eighths
  • 1 large cabbage, cut into large pieces
  • 2 lb (900g) tomatoes, seeded, or ½ tin tomato paste
  • ½ chouriço* cut in small pieces
  • 1 dsp chouriço* oil
  • ¼ lb (110g) macaroni
  • 2 oz. (56g) rice (optional)

Method

Boil the 2 nervos separately in 1 pint (600ml) water till quite tender. Boil then simmer the brisket of beef, salt and bay leaves till the meat is absolutely tender. Drain and put in a big pan and add the soup of the nervos. Put in the seeded tomatoes in and fry in 1 dsp of olive oil.
When this is fried to a moist consistency, put it in the strained soup which should be boiling, and add the carrots and cabbage to the soup.
A quarter of an hour before serving put in the chouriço and also the chouriço oil. The vegetables, etc, should be quite tender before serving.
*     Called paio in the original recipe, but note that what Macanese called paio is what in Portugal is called chouriço.

STUFFED PIGEONS

Ingredients

  • 5 whole pigeons
  • 2 ozs (56g) minced pork or veal
  • 2 ozs (56g) bacon, minced (optional)
  • ½ onion
  • 5 olives, pitted and chopped
  • 6 Chinese dried mushrooms
  • l-2 tbsp fresh or toasted bread crumbs

Method

Remove the gizzards, hearts and livers, and wash well and mince them.
Wash the mushrooms in cold water and just cover with boiling water and cover the bowl to moisten the mushrooms. When soft enough discard the stems and cut mushrooms in thin narrow strips and set aside.
Mix the minced meat with the mushrooms, olives, bread crumbs, salt and pepper. If it is too dry add a little of the mushroom liquid. Season the inside and outside of the pigeons with a little salt and pepper, and stuff with the meat mixture. Make the pigeon shapely by twisting the wings to the back and piercing the ends of the leg bones into the bottom of the stomach skin.
Put pigeons in a bowl with the remainder of the mushroom liquid and steam for a couple of hours or till tender.
Some fresh mushrooms, asparagus, etc, can be put into the gravy when serving.
(A plainer stuffing can be made using the livers, gizzards and hearts, 2 oz (56g) of fat pork or bacon, bread crumbs, a little chopped parsley and a pinch of nutmeg or mace mixed together.)

STUFFED VEGETABLES

[3 similar recipes for stuffed tomatoes, onions and cucumber]
(Guilly(1)

Ingredients

  • 6 large tomatoes or 6 large onions or 4 cucumbers
  • ½ or ¼ lb (110-220g) minced beef, chicken or pork
  • 1 slice of bread
  • ½ tsp grated cheese(2)
  • 1 small onion, diced
  • 2 oz (56g) margarine
  • toasted breadcrumbs
(2)     For the cucumbers, grated nutmeg can be used instead of grated cheese.

Method

Soak bread in cold water till soft and squeeze out water. Mix the minced meat, bread, cheese, onion and seasoning together well, add seasoning and fill each vegetable (tomato or onion or cucumber) with this mixture.
Tomatoes:     Wash tomatoes, cut a thin slice off the top out, scoop cut seeds. Fill with meat mixture, sprinkle with breadcrumbs and top with little dabs of the margarine. Bake in moderate oven for about ½ hr.
Onions:     Skin onions, and trim off top and bottom. With a sharp pointed knife or spoon scoop out about 1 tsp of the inner core and fill with meat mixture. Array onions in a pan with about 1 cup or water, bring to the boil and simmer gently until soft, being careful not to burn. (Steaming is better but takes much longer.)
Cucumbers:     Wash cucumbers and, if desired, peel. Cut in 3" (7.5cm) lengths and remove seeds. Fill with meat mixture. Put cucumbers in a pan and half cover with water, bring to the boil and simmer until tender.
Array vegetables on a platter. If there is insufficient gravy in the baking pan, add a little water, bring to a boil and thicken with flour and water and pour over the stuffed vegetables and serve.

*     From Annie Sousa's collection

 T 

TAMALHA

[Chicken wrapped in banana leaves]

Ingredients

  • 1 large chicken
  • 1 chouriço cut in bite-sized pieces
  • 900g fresh tomatoes or 1 small tin of canned tomatoes

Method

Boil the chicken (whole) in 2½ cups of water and until tender and the water has been reduced to two cups; remove from the fire. Retain the chicken stock.
Remove and bone the chicken, cut the meat in small cubes and set aside.
Take the seeds out of the tomatoes and cut them in quarters or eighths.
Fry the tomatoes and cook till almost all the juice is boiled off. Then add the chicken and the chouriço and fry for a couple of minutes. The consistency must be just moist. Put aside to cool.
Proceed with the pastry as directed for Chilicote de Rabono but instead of water use the stock from the boiled chicken. Also wrap up in the same way and steam. If banana leaves are unavailable, katupa* leaves will do but will not have the same chiste.

*     It is unclear what is meant here. Katupa – in Cantonese ham iok chong – is also wrapped in banana leaves.

TOMATO SOUP

Ingredients

  • 2 lb cooking tomatoes
  • 3 pints stock or water
  • a few celery seeds (tied in a muslin bag) or a piece of celery when in season
  • 1 oz margarine or butter
  • pepper and salt
  • cornflour about 1 tbsp
  • 1 or 2 carrots, peeled and sliced
  • 2 onions, peeled and sliced
  • cornflour

Method

Melt the margarine or butter in a saucepan, add the prepared vegetables and cook them for a few minutes without letting them brown.
Remove the saucepan from the fire and add the tomatoes, stock or water, seasoning and celery. Simmer all together until tender, then strain through a fine sieve.
Return the puree to the saucepan, stir in a little cornflour mixed to a smooth paste with water. Boil for a few minutes, season to taste and serve with fried croutons.

TORESMO v1 Click hear sound

[Rendered fat fried with balichão]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) rendered fat
  • 6 spring onions, chopped
  • ½ tsp balichão

Method

Put half a tsp lard in a pan and when hot add spring onions and fry for for ½ min, add balichão and fry for 2 mins, then add the rendered fat and stir fry for 2 mins.

TORESMO v2 Click hear sound

[Pork crackling]
(Maria Leitão)

Ingredients

  • 2 lb (900g) pig's skin
  • 1 tbsp balichão
  • 6 spring onions, cut in small pieces

Method

It is important that the skin should be from the back of the pig and not near the stomach or leg. This skin is usually sold in pieces about 2 ft (60cm) long and 1 ft (30cm) wide, and has about 1" of fat on it.
Wash the skin with the attached fat, then cut into small strips 1" (2.5cm) long and ½" wide. Heat on a very low flame to let all the fat melt out. This should take at least a couple of hours, after which the pieces of skin will be much shrunken, look rather brownish and be as hard as rubber, and not at all sticky inside. Some liquid lard may be drained off during the process.
When all the lard has been extracted from the fat and the pieces look dry, drain off all the lard. With chopsticks or fingers, separate any pieces that are attached together.
Heat fat in a saucepan and when quite hot, test by dropping in one piece of skin and stirring: if the skin puffs out nicely and is light and crispy, then put in as many pieces of skin that can be accommodated in the lard (with enough space for expansion). Stir constantly with a pair of chopsticks to have them evenly fried. A couple of minutes may be enough, or till golden brown.
Fry the rest the same way. Drain out on a sheet of paper.
Heat 2-3 tbsp lard in a large pan, and when hot, add spring onions and balichão. Fry for 2 minutes. Put in the fried skins, lower the heat, and stir well so that the taste of balichão can get into every piece of the skins. Put on a sheet of paper or plate to cool, then keep in a tin well closed. Delicious.
 V 

VACA BRASILEIRA

[Beef Brazilian style]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 1 lb (450g) of beef
  • 1 sherry glass (3 tbsp) of white wine
  • 1 sherry glass (3 tbsp)of vinegar
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 tsp peppercorn
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 clove garlic

Method

Fork the beef well, add salt and the rest of the ingredients. Marinading for a day or two improves the taste.
Bring to the boil and then simmer until quite tender.
Serve hot or cold.

VACA CHAU CHAU Click hear sound PARIDA

[Stir-fried beef*]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) beef, cut in very thin strips about ½" long
  • ¼ tsp turmeric
  • 1 tsp white vinegar
  • 3 spring onions, finely chopped
  • 20 cent size ginger, cut in very thin ½" long strips
  • salt to taste
  • about ¼ cup water for gravy

Method

Put a tsp of lard in a frying pan and when hot fry the spring onions and the ginger strips first, add salt and turmeric and fry for a minute then add the vinegar and beef. Fry till almost done. Add a little water, bring to the boil and it is ready.

*     This translates literally as vaca (Portuguese for beef) chaochao (Cantonese for stir-fried) parida (Portuguese for someone who had recently given birth to a child). Dishes with ginger were considered beneficial for women recovering from childbirth.– HdA

VACA EMBRIAGADA or VACA VINHO D'ALHO

[Literally, "drunken beef" or Beef with wine and garlic]
(Avó(1))

Ingredients

  • 3 lbs (1.4kg) beef
  • 2 alhos(2) (crushed garlic)
  • 1 tbsp salt
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • ½ tsp ground pepper
  • 1 tsp cummin
  • ½ tsp coriander
  • ¾ water tumbler of Chinese wine
  • ½ water tumbler vinegar

Method

Dry the piece of beef well on all sides, then add salt, then alhos and rub in well. Then the powdered ingredients, then the wine and vinegar. Keep in a cool place turning it daily so as to get all the taste in. An earthenware or a porcelain bowl in best for this purpose.
(1)     The typed version of Guilly's recipes does not show diacritical marks (accents), so it is unclear whether this should be avó (grandmother) or avô (grandfather); this person is perhaps Guilly's paternal grandmother, Ana Teresa Brandão.
(2)     Presumably this means 2 cloves rather than 2 whole bulbs of garlic.
(3)     There is a typographical error in the original, which states "For the piece of beef ...". There are no directions on how to cook the meat.

VACA ESTUFADA v4 Click hear sound

[Pot-roast beef]
(Guilly)

Ingredients

  • 2lb (900g) beef(1)
  • ¾ dsp salt
  • 3 cloves of garlic
  • 1 piece of cinnamon, size of ¼ cigarette
  • 1 large onion, quartered
  • 1 piece brown sugar,(2) size of a walnut
  • 2 large tomatoes, quartered
  • 4 peppercorns
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 tsp Chinese sauce(3)
  • ¼ cup wine or water

Method

Get a nice firm piece of beef, wide and rather flat, with a good layer of fat on the top. Wash, drain, then fork it well, rub over with the salt and go on forking on all sides. Add the rest of the ingredients. Add wine or water.
Put the beef and ingredients in a pan, just large enough to fit the meat with the fat part on top. Add water to cover about half the meat.
Bring to the boil, then simmer gently until quite tender
.
Boil 6 whole potatoes in plain water till half done, then put them in the pan with the beef and boil till done so that they acquire the taste of the gravy
.
Remove the potatoes and keep them warm until the beef is quite tender, and ready to be served.
Before serving slice the meat and place neatly along the centre of a dish surrounded by the potatoes.
Strain all the juices into a small pan and thicken by adding ½ tsp of flour mixed with 1 dsp of water. Stir until it boils and thickens. Pour this over and around the meat and potatoes.
(1)     Bolar roast is good for this dish.
(2)     Presumably this refers to jagra (c.f. Hobson-Jobson, A Glossary of Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases)
(3)     This probably means soy sauce

VACA SALMOURADA

[Corned beef]
(H. Sequeira)

Ingredients

  • 1 catty (600g) beef
  • 1 tael (38g) salt
  • ½ tael (19g) salitre
  • ½ tael (19g) sugar
  • 12 peppercorns
  • 80ml brandy
  • 1 level tsp ground pepper
  • ½ lemon
  • 3 bay leaves (or to taste)

Method

Rub the salt thoroughly onto the beef and let it stand in a cool place for 12 hours. Discard any juices. After which bring out the piece of beef (not using the juice that is left behind), add the rest of the ingredients, mixing well and leave for two or more days, turning over each day
.

No instructions are given for cooking or serving.

VACA SECA

[Meat loaf (literally, dried beef)]

Ingredients

  • 12 taels (460g) minced beef
  • 4 taels (150g) minced pork
  • 4 taels (150g) tomatoes, skinned and seeded
  • 2 eggs
  • 6 soda biscuits powdered
  • Ground pepper
  • Ground nutmeg
  • 1 tsp butter
  • salt to taste

Method

Mix meats, tomatoes, most of the powdered biscuits, pepper and nutmeg thoroughly. Lightly beat the eggs with salt and mix in well with the meat mixture.
Put the mixture in an enamel baking dish and mould to a good shape that can be neatly sliced and served.
Sprinkle some biscuit powder on the top. Put little lumps of butter all over and bake slowly.
 W 

WHITE BAIT

Ingredients

  • ½ lb (220g) white bait
  • 3 dsp flour
  • 5-6 dsp water
  • 2 eggs
  • 3 spring onions, chopped
  • salt and pepper
  • fat for deep frying

Method

Wash the white bait, scrape a little and cut off a bit of the tail. Wash again, drain and season well with salt and pepper.
Make a rather thick paste of flour and water and seasoned with salt and pepper. Add yolks chopped spring onions, fish to the paste and beat for a minute. Separately, beat egg whites stiff and fold in lightly to the mixture which should be like pancake batter.
Drop tablespoons of the mixture into hot lard.
 Y 

YELLOW FISH (Wong Gnu)

Ingredients

  • 1 fish 12" (30cm) long
  • 2 tsp black bean (tao see in Cantonese, péchiang in Shanghainese)
  • 3 spring onions, chopped fine
  • ginger the size of a 20-cent piece
  • about ¼ cup ló chiu
  • ¼ cup water

Method

Wash the fish and cut into half. Scrape the skin off the ginger and crush it. Dry the fish well with a clean cloth, season with salt and pepper and fry in 3 dsp of very hot fat on both sides till it acquires a golden colour, then remove carefully. In the same lard fry the ginger and spring onions, then add the deu pé chiang. Fry for a couple of minutes, add the wine, then the fish. Half-cover the fish with water and simmer. After 5 mins. turn the fish over to the other side and simmer for a few minutes more till it is done.